What is a Database
What is a Database

What is a Database?


This postulation is devoted to Allah, my Creator and my Master, and envoy, Mohammed (May Allah favor and give him), who showed us the motivation behind life. My country Pakistan is the hottest womb; Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad; my second wonderful home; My awesome guardians, who never quit giving of themselves in incalculable ways, My dearest friend, who drives me through the valley of dimness with the light of trust and support, My cherished siblings and sisters; especially my dearest sibling, who remains by me when things look disheartening, My beloved Parents: whom I can’t compel myself to quit loving. All the general population in my life who touch my heart, I commit to this research.


What is a Database? Database (DB) connectivity is very widespread in businesses of all sizes. As is the case with all technologies, small businesses are slower than large ones to adopt new DB. Potential small business benefits and firm and sector-specific strategies drive the adoption and use of DB. Furthermore, sectors are increasingly global and dominated by large firms and the structure of their values chains and operations shape opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). Principal reasons for non-adoption are lack of applicability and little incentive to change business models when returns are unclear. SMEs also face generic barriers to adoption including trust and transaction security and IPR concerns, and challenges in areas of management skills, technological capabilities, productivity and competitiveness. The issues for governments are to foster appropriate business environments for e-business and DB uptake (e.g. to diffuse broadband, enhance competition), and target programmes to overcome market failures to the extent that they are needed in particular areas (e.g. skill formation, specialized information). Governments have a range of SME e-business and Internet use programmes. However commercial considerations and potential returns are the principal drivers of small business adoption and profitable use.


What is a Database? DB (Database) is defined as the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. DB comprises all the technology that simplifies the processing, transfer and exchange of information and communication services. It is considered as a subject of expertise that links information technology (computers and applications) and telecommunication networks (intranet and internet), that lets people and computers co-exist and inter relate regardless of physical location. Werthner and Klein also concluded that the term DB includes hardware, software, networks and people that should be united by inter-linking each one to the other in a systematic process to create the necessary information that helps the decision makers, producing products, offering services, promotion, controlling and for achieving business aims and goals. DB is clearly considered a key factor of business growth in the 21st century, specifically, in the current vibrant business and highly competitive environment which requires utilizing DB to improve productivity and cost efficiency, and to present high quality products and services to customers. Recently, the term, DB has expanded to include the role of DB tools not just inside the company but outside the company, for example, a UNDP report, 2001, concluded that DB is considered as a tool of marketing and contacting customers and looking for potential customers and stakeholders, as well as offering DB services is distinguished as a potential service for customers. According to Kabanda, notwithstanding the rapid expansion, adoption and easy access of internet, its services are highly unequal across and within countries. Emerging countries face considerable challenges in internet utilization for their growth and development on account of inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, and lack of supporting infrastructure, including electricity and steep prices of DB technologies. An approximate 75% of the world population, live in emerging markets, unsurprisingly have limited or no access to the Internet. The study further revealed that the rate of DB adoption by businesses on a continent to continent analysis show that Africa has the lowest penetration ratio for fixed teledensity and mobile cellular subscriptions, respectively. Europe leads all other continents whilst Africa remains the least, with at most 2%.

DB includes all digital technology that assists individuals, businesses and organizations in using information. It covers all electronic products that deal with information in a digital form. Therefore, DB is concerned with digital data storage, retrieval and transmission.

What is a Database?DB makes a business more efficient, effective and promptly respond to customers’ needs. DB can assist business activities including design, manufacturing, R&D, distribution and sales and feedback. Prof.Nassef reports that “contrary to the prevalent predDB that DB will decrease the demand for face to face communication and will result in greater dispersion of economic activity. She suggests that DB promotes industrial agglomeration”. In addition, Prof.Nassef argues that “The search of job and recruitment via the Internet offer potential efficiency gains to the labor market and the economy through reducing transaction cost and providing better matching between workers and vacancies by diffusing information about job widely”.

This theme includes a deep analysis of the impact of the information and communication technologies on different aspects of development and growth. It covers topics related to the financial, economic and technological aspects and stress on the importance of DB their role in facilitating a wide range of services and transactions such as online banking and online services provided by companies. It discusses authentication methods used in online banking and various online services. DB through facilitating the supply and access of a wide range of financial services, increasing efficiency in institutions and corporations, reducing costs and promoting and enhancing communication are a major channel for development. In addition, It covers topics that links information and communication technologies to urbanization and show the importance DB in urban service delivery. It presents how DB can be used to promote and ensure urbanization which became the norm of life of the twenty first century and poses one of the most critical challenges to achieve economic development and better standard of living. Furthermore, Big data as a tool for development presents topics that show how the big amount of digital data continually generated by the global population could be analyzed to support decision making and to generate actionable insights for policy makers. It also indicates the major role that big data plays as a tool for promoting various aspects of development.

Different research avenues could be suggested to address the role of Database in business. For example, Software Piracy (SP) is a worldwide, multifaceted phenomenon that presents a major challenge for software producers. The SP problem has been heightened worldwide because of the pervasiveness of the Internet and the progression of information technology, which have increased the probability for increasing the intellectual property rights violation. Establishing measures to effectively curb SP in Lebanon, however, requires understanding the underlying motivations and justifications for SP behaviors as well as SP rates and the factors influencing them. In their study, Khalil and Seleim, adopted and tested a causal model of software piracy attitudes, intentions, and behaviors in Lebanon using professionals and managers sample.

Future research designs should also employ other student and non-student samples in other Lebanese private and public sectors in order to verify the findings. Future research models should also include and investigate new constructs, such as national culture, demographics, corruption index, and economic development that may moderate the SP intention-behavior relationship.

Another research stream aims to show the use of Electronic business (e-business) in enhancing the organization’s competitiveness via deploying innovative information and communications technology. Several studies have been conducted in this area. For example, the impacts of using SNSs (social networks sites) as a way to encourage word of mouth between customers or the effects of SNSs on social or academic performance of university students. Dr.Abbas finds a significant influence of SNSs on firm`s competitive performance, social and academic life of university students.

Future research that fall under this subtheme may include using SNSs as a strategic tool to implement firm`s strategy, the effect of using e-commerce on market share, the role of SNSs on social bonds of university’s students, using information systems to customize firm`s product, and comparisons between traditional communication tools and interactive tools to improve firm`s performance.

Also, in community-based dental education programs, student-provided services can be an important source of community clinic and practice revenues. Therefore, the research within the department of Developmental Sciences are directed towards the construction of new community-based programs as the construction of an educational message to the pre-school teachers in relation to dental traumatology.

In a dynamic business environment, accounting profession should deal with different multifaceted new issues. For instance, how to record innovative business transactions, expand value-added business and information processes, distribute valuable knowledge to a broad group of information users, and offer assurance services across a whole range of economic activities. Information communication and technology has drastically altered the way in which business is performed. Now, most companies used accounting information systems in running their operations. Developments in information technology have radically enhanced accounting systems. Computers and other digital technologies have amplified office productivity facilitating the fast exchange of documents, gathering and analysis of data. According to Dr.El-Haridi and Dr.Mandour, the use of ERP systems in corporations has a significant influence on their performance.

The diffusion of computer usage and software development brought about strong adjustments in accounting businesses’ procedures; however, the influence of these innovations has not been accurately analyzed. Therefore, future research in this area is needed to judge the influences technological innovation has instigated in the accounting firms through a survey, using a structured questionnaire that can send to people responsible for the accounting firms.

The DB progresses made available huge amounts of information. This availability causes substantial risks to computer systems. In spite of noteworthy improvements in the information security area, several ISs are still susceptible to internal and external attacks. The presence of an internal audit for ISs avoiding these attacks or reducing the negative consequences. Therefore, an exploratory research on informatics audit for ISs security is needed.

Information and communications technology systems include desktop computers, laptops and tablets, fixed and mobile telephone systems, communications networks and software – even wearables. Your business can use DB systems to benefit from improvements such as reducing costs, increasing efficiency, improving decision-making and increasing your competitiveness in the marketplace.

Better Decision-Making

DB systems allow your business to store, process, analyze and share vast amounts of data. The information available from corporate data enables managers and employees to make decisions quickly and accurately so that they can manage operations effectively and respond rapidly to business opportunities or threats. Communication networks also enable decision-makers in different locations to work together easily when they need to take joint decisions.

Increased Manufacturing Productivity

By automating business processes and giving employees DB tools, your business can improve its individual and overall productivity. On the production line, for example, solutions such as computer-aided design can help to reduce set-up times and improve manufacturing accuracy so that employees spend less time on reworking. Access to manufacturing data enables managers to plan production more effectively, making better use of resources and reducing lead times.

Improved Customer Service

Quality of customer service is an important differentiator for businesses. Your company can use DB solutions to offer faster response to and higher standards of service to its customers. If you run a call center, for example, your agents can access databases that provide comprehensive customer information, including purchase history and product preferences. The information helps them deal quickly and efficiently with inquiries, boosting customer satisfaction. Service personnel working in the field can access customer, service and product databases using smartphones with secure Internet connections. This enables them to fix problems quickly and effectively, again boosting customer satisfaction.

Greater and Virtual Collaboration

Communication networks enable your project teams to collaborate effectively. By using videoconferencing or web conferencing over the Internet, teams can hold virtual meetings that bring together members from different locations, or different organizations, such as suppliers or business partners. This helps to create stronger project teams and enables the teams to maintain progress on important projects, rather than waiting for members to meet in a single location. In a product development program, for example, teams can reduce overall project time and get new products to market faster, giving the company a strong competitive advantage.

Improved Financial Performance

DB solutions can help your organization reduce costs, increase revenue and improve profitability. Using videoconferencing to host meetings between members in different locations, for example, reduces travel costs. Production data can help staff identify quality problems, reducing waste and reworking costs. Call center agents can use information available on their customer databases to increase revenue by identifying opportunities for selling additional products or services. Cost reductions and revenue gains make an important contribution to overall profitability.

Database (DB) can affect competitive advantage in many different ways. By making vast amounts of information available to all employees, DB enables the organization to respond effectively to change or business opportunities. It supports communication among teams, enabling them to quickly deliver strategic projects that contribute to growth. Technology also improves supply chain efficiency by enabling communication and information sharing throughout the chain.

Customer Service

DB systems are capable of storing and communicating vast amounts of information. That gives employees the ability to provide service based on comprehensive customer information. In a telephone call center, for example, an operator can view the caller’s entire purchase history, profile and preferences during the call. This gives the operator the opportunity to deal efficiently and effectively with the call and to improve customer satisfaction.

Project Teams

Organizations use project teams to work on product development and other strategic initiatives. According to the website Effective Meetings, using technology to hold virtual project meetings over the Internet reduces wasted travel time and enables the teams to make faster decisions, regardless of where members are located. Faster decision making reduces time to completion, enabling teams to get new products to market ahead of competitors.

Supply Chain

Linking members of a supply chain with a communications network allows an organization to respond rapidly to business threats or opportunities. Communicating an increase in market demand enables all supply chain members to adjust their production schedules in line with the change and deliver on time without disruption.


Mobile communication technology enables employees working away from the office to access the same data and applications as their office-based colleagues. That means field service technicians or sales representatives can provide a high-quality service to customers, regardless of where they are, giving the organization a further competitive advantage.

Switching Costs

Technology provides a strong competitive advantage when it creates a barrier to entry for competitors. For example, say an organization provides a customized online ordering system to a major client. A competitor would have to build a matching system from scratch to provide the same benefits, giving the incumbent a strong advantage. This type of advantage is known as a switching cost. According to a research paper from the IESE Business School, switching costs are becoming strategically important in the increasingly networked DB environment.


According to a 1997 article in the “Strategic Management Journal,” information technology (IT) alone does not deliver competitive advantage. However, combining IT with other corporate resources such as innovation and talented people can create a powerful competitive advantage that is difficult for competitors to match.

Practical study

Information and Communications Technology (DB) involves the use of computer hardware, software and telecommunication devices to store, manipulate, convert, protect, send and receive data/information. DB is fast developing and is now part of every aspect of our livelihood. Businesses cannot survive in this 21st century without DB since all activities undertaken in the business setup is linked to DB. Consequently, communication flow is very essential in the growth and development of every business entity. DB makes it possible to communicate easily with staff and customers of the company. Businesses of this 21st century are advancing at a very fast pace. With the world becoming a global village, business transactions are becoming increasingly dynamic and consequently this has caused an increase in world trade. Thus the increase in the volume of trade in Ghana and other developed countries require fast transfers of monies, payment across continents and many other services that promote growth of business.

These transactions cannot be carried out effectively without the use of DB. With the numerous positive impact of DB in businesses, it is hard to imagine a contemporary business functioning without adoption of DB. Thus, DB permeates every aspect of twenty first century businesses. DB is crucially important for sustainable development in developing countries. DB encompasses the use of Computers, Internet, E-mail, Mobile Phones and Fax machine. Computers are now commonly used for writing letters, and reports, printing books, newspapers, and magazines, drawing pDBures and diagrams, doing statistics, mathematics and handling financial records, controlling traffic lights, flying aero planes, making and playing music and video, sending messages anywhere in the world. Also, describes the Internet as a mixture of many services with the two most commonly used being electronic mail (e-mail for short) and the World Wide Web (www). It plays a significant role in education, health, political processes, agriculture, economy, businesses and newsgroups.

DB enables electronic mail (e-mail) which is the exchange of text messages and computer files transmitted via communications networks such as the Internet. Email system is basically the equivalent of post mailing services with the biggest difference however being the time and cost involved. Email also involves not only written data, but all sorts of information in the form of video, audio, or photographs, can be sent via e-mail. I describes e-mail as an increasing popular method of communication, especially in the workplace.

DB also enables the use of mobile phones in businesses. Bittner defines mobile phones as a telephone system that can move or be moved easily and quickly from place to place. Mobile phones are now the DB that is reshaping and revolutionizing the communications globally. Its impact on the economic activities of nations, businesses, and small entrepreneurs is phenomenal. The importance of information cannot be overemphasized. This view by stating that mobile telephony usage by individuals enables them to communicate with loved ones, clients and business associates. For large businesses, it is a means of providing a service that leads to an increase in profits.

Although DB comes with numerous benefits, there are however some constraints to their implementation. Researchers assert that infrastructure, finance, poor data system and lack of compatibility skilled personnel, leadership styles, culture, and bureaucracy and attitudes can be considered as barriers to DB investment. Also, states that DB investment may be constrained by a broad range of laws and policies which may influence the overall package of incentives associated with the used DB. Some of these laws or policies include;

  1. Policies that are aimed at curtailing peoples’ capacity to utilize DB effectively.
  2. Policies that directly affect negatively DB innovation and investment.

iii. Policies the affect entrepreneurship, research and development.

  1. Policies that affect telecommunications infrastructure and access.

At the most basic level, an information system (IS) is a set of components that work together to manage data processing and storage. Its role is to support the key aspects of running an organization, such as communication, record-keeping, decision making, data analysis and more. Companies use this information to improve their business operations, make strategic decisions and gain a competitive edge.

Information systems typically include a combination of software, hardware and telecommunication networks. For example, an organization may use customer relationship management systems to gain a better understanding of its target audience, acquire new customers and retain existing clients. This technology allows companies to gather and analyze sales activity data, define the exact target group of a marketing campaign and measure customer satisfaction.

Modern technology can significantly boost your company’s performance and productivity. Information systems are no exception. Organizations worldwide rely on them to research and develop new ways to generate revenue, engage customers and streamline time-consuming tasks.

With an information system, businesses can save time and money while making smarter decisions. A company’s internal departments, such as marketing and sales, can communicate better and share information more easily.

Since this technology is automated and uses complex algorithms, it reduces human error. Furthermore, employees can focus on the core aspects of a business rather than spending hours collecting data, filling out paperwork and doing manual analysis.

Thanks to modern information systems, team members can access massive amounts of data from one platform. For example, they can gather and process information from different sources, such as vendors, customers, warehouses and sales agents, with a few mouse clicks.

There are different types of information systems and each has a different role. Business intelligence (BI) systems, for instance, can turn data into valuable insights.

This kind of technology allows for faster, more accurate reporting, better business decisions and more efficient resource allocation. Another major benefit is data visualization, which enables analysts to interpret large amounts of information, predDB future events and find patterns in historical data.

Organizations can also use enterprise resource planning (ERP) software to collect, manage and analyze data across different areas, from manufacturing to finance and accounting. This type of information system consists of multiple applications that provide a 360-degree view of business operations. NetSuite ERP, PeopleSoft, Odoo and Intacct are just a few examples of ERP software.

Like other information systems, ERP provides actionable insights and helps you decide on the next steps. It also makes it easier to achieve regulatory compliance, increase data security and share information between departments. Additionally, it helps to ensure that all of your financial records are accurate and up-to-date.

In the long run, ERP software can reduce operational costs, improve collaboration and boost your revenue. Nearly half of the companies that implement this system report major benefits within six months.

At the end of the day, information systems can give you a competitive advantage and provide the data you need to make faster, smarter business decisions. Depending on your needs, you can opt for transaction processing systems, knowledge management systems, decision support systems and more. When choosing one, consider your budget, industry and business size. Look for an information system that aligns with your goals and can streamline your day-to-day operations.

From your company’s online store to the enterprise software your business uses to record transactions and gather information, information technology has an essential role in your small business’s daily operations and success. The role of IT in business is seen in how it can help your company become more productive, increase performance, save money, improve the customer experience, streamline communications and enhance managerial decision-making. It also plays a role in helping companies expand globally and in providing staff access to company information wherever and whenever they need it.

From your company’s online store to the enterprise software your business uses to record transactions and gather information, information technology has an essential role in your small business’s daily operations and success. The role of IT in business is seen in how it can help your company become more productive, increase performance, save money, improve the customer experience, streamline communications and enhance managerial decision-making. It also plays a role in helping companies expand globally and in providing staff access to company information wherever and whenever they need it.

Improved Organizational Communication

An important use of technology in business is for communication through platforms such as conferencing software, email, video chat, company intranets and the internet in general. IT allows businesses to easily hold virtual meetings with staff and clients around the world without having to spend time and money on travel. At the same time, employees can access and share information and collaborate on their work regardless of location; employees can even work remotely so that the company can save on costs. Companies can also use platforms such as social media to address customer concerns more efficiently.

More Efficient Daily Operations

Another role of IT in business is to improve the efficiency of operations so that the company can complete tasks quicker and cheaper. This often happens with the help of enterprise software and a centralized company database.

Rather than having to get workers to count and monitor inventory, companies can use inventory management software that checks real-time levels, provides helpful reports to managers and can even trigger orders when the supply is low. Customer relationship management software has automated common sales and marketing tasks such as generating leads, sending promotions and tracking metrics. Companies can also take advantage of fully featured enterprise resource planning software to make it easier to do accounting tasks, manage human resources, monitor the supply chain, generate invoices and make supply purchases.

Better Customer Experience

IT also makes it easier to provide a good customer experience through improved customer service, easier customized marketing and e-commerce. Rather than only being able to reach the company during business hours, customers can conveniently interact with the company on its website and through social media, email and custom instant messaging services. Through tracking customers’ previous purchases with marketing software, companies can send customized promotions that better meet customers’ needs and result in more likely sales. Customers also benefit from being able to purchase products and services from the company’s website, and this also increases the potential for more revenue and growth for the company.

Information Technology and Business Decision-Making

The role of information technology in management decision-making is seen in tools such as ERP software and decision support systems that help managers see company performance data in real time so that they can make more informed decisions. Such software presents an online dashboard with information about the company’s finances, customers, sales and marketing trends and inventory levels. Managers can use the data to decide which products to promote or stop selling, where to cut expenses, which customers need support and when to place supply and materials orders.

Other examples of IT’s role in business include the following:

  • Internet-enabled systems, such as secure entry systems and wireless cameras, help improve business security and reduce risks of theft and loss of confidential information.
  • IT allows companies to store important company data in a database in the cloud to reduce paper waste, increase security and allow for easy backups.
  • IT allows companies to expand internationally as easily as setting up a multi-language website that markets to global customers and allows purchases in multiple currencies.
  • Companies can use online recruitmentto find more qualified job candidates and handle most of the hiring process online.
  • From enabling telecommuting to reducing energy use through modern systems, IT has a role in company sustainabilitythat can save money and improve the company’s reputation.
  • Thanks to IT, getting the latest information about your competitors and the market is as easy as searching Google on your computer or smartphone.

Data collection methods

The contribution of DB to the growth and development of every business have been stated by many researchers. DB is crucially important for sustainable development in developing countries. Thus investment in DB in the long run leads to improvement in the economy. However the investment into DB has associated factors that militate against it. Notable among these factors are inadequate power supply, breaking down and malfunctioning of computer, poor awareness of DB application and fund to invest more on DB device, cost of training IT personnel and cost of repairs in terms internet service. However, studies done by various researchers show that DB improves the productive capacity of businesses. Investment in DB greatly reduces travel costs for sector workers of various businesses. There are a lot of studies on the impact of DB on the performance of businesses in other countries but studies on the impact of DB on business in Ghana are scarce. Consequently this study focuses on identifying the impact of DB on the modern business in Ghana to fill the knowledge gap in this field.

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Technology makes information available to decision makers, helping to improve the quality and speed of decision making. Technology also makes it easier for people to collaborate so they can execute joint business decisions. Organizations use communication technology to update employees on business decisions and ensure the right people implement those decisions.


Individuals or groups who make business decisions need rapid access to information to formulate and justify their decisions. Information can include historical corporate data, customer records, market trends, financial data and competitor profiles. This information may reside in varying databases within an organization, however, making it difficult for decision makers to get a complete pDBure. Investing in a networked data management system enables organizations to store data in central locations that decision makers can access via a secure network.


Technology can also improve the collection of information needed for business decisions. Providing network links between a central database and local retail outlets, for example, enables organizations to collect the latest sales data and make decisions based on up-to-date information. Similarly, members of a supply chain can collect and share market and production data to make more accurate decisions about production and stock levels.


Data alone cannot improve business decisions. According to Strategic Consultancy DSS Resources, data management must reflect decision-making processes. Many information technology (IT) departments believe that their responsibility is just to deliver large quantities of data to the decision maker’s desktop. Raw data, however, is unlikely to reflect the decision makers’ needs, creating a disconnect between IT and business.


The decision-making process consists of a number of stages including decision preparation, decision structuring, decision making, and decision management. Data requirements are different at each stage, so large volumes of raw data are unnecessary. Business intelligence software tools are available that allow users to select, analyze and manipulate data into the form they need at different stages of the process.


In many organizations, decision making is a group process, particularly for a project such as new product development. Technology supports decision making in a group environment by allowing all members to access essential data via a network. Groups can also use collaboration tools such as audio or video conferencing to conduct meetings between members in different locations as a way to speed up decision making.

SWOT analysis

SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and is a structured planning method that evaluates those four elements of an organization, project or business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a company, product, place, industry, or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. Some authors credit SWOT to Albert Humphrey, who led a convention at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500 companies. However, Humphrey himself did not claim the creation of SWOT, and the origins remain obscure. The degree to which the internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit.

Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others

Weaknesses: characteristics of the business that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others

Opportunities: elements in the environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage

Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project

Conclusion and Recommendations

The World Bank (2006) observed that DB are adopted and used by most businesses as productive input factors which can increase labor productivity. DB can help businesses to keep up with competition, increase staff satisfaction, increase operational efficiency, improve communication with suppliers and customers, and enhance joint working in collaborative venture. Although not a solution for all development problems, DB serves as a powerful tool, when used appropriately as part of an overall development strategy to play a key role in the development process. He carried out a study on factors affecting the adoption of DB among businesses in Italy and their study revealed that general DB use and adoption rates are very high and do not depend on size (i.e. number of employees) and industry. The study also revealed that when the rate of effective use was measured by the share of total employees with access to these DB, the percentages of educated workers exerted a positive effect and, in the case of the Internet, a negative impact of size emerged. The study further revealed that the use of market oriented DB did not depend on a firm’s size or its productive or technological features, but rose when the firm was an exporter and present in foreign markets with commercial branches and employed a relevant share of workers with university education. The dilemma is that entrepreneurial and productive capacities are being severely under-exploited in the informal sector while the capability of the formal economy to generate jobs through the expansion of formal enterprises is limited. It is therefore important that businesses take advantage of DB to improve the ability of the informal sector to help contribute to national development.

This is evident when small and medium sized businesses (SME’s) adopt and use DB which has proven positive outcomes related to operational efficiencies, increased revenues, and increased market competitiveness.

Marketing professionals use computer technology to plan, manage and monitor campaigns. By analyzing and manipulating data on computers, they can increase the precision of marketing campaigns, personalize customer and prospect communications, and improve customer relationship management. Computer technology also makes it easier for marketing professionals to collaborate with colleagues, agencies and suppliers.

Improve Marketing Precision

With computers, marketing teams store, analyze and manage large volumes of data on prospects and customers. Understanding the demographics, purchasing histories and product preferences of different groups and individuals enables marketers to target products and campaigns with greater precision and to personalize communications.

Increase Campaign Capacity

With cloud resources, marketers can quickly increase computing capacity when they need it. By purchasing additional computing capacity from a cloud service provider, rather than investing in fixed systems, marketers can handle peaks in demand. Increasing website capacity to handle large numbers of campaign responses, for example, ensures that customers do not experience long waiting times. Marketers also use cloud computing to provide the additional capacity for test marketing and to manage large-scale email campaigns.

Automate Marketing Campaigns

Marketing automation is now an essential element in lead management, the process of converting sales leads to customers. Marketing automation identifies a prospect’s level of interest or intent to buy based on the response to a series of emails. The team can then follow up with detailed information or a sales call, depending on the response.

Open New Communication Channels

Computer technology gives marketers the opportunity to build dialog and strengthen relationships with customers and prospects. Marketers must respond to consumers’ growing use of the Internet and social media. By monitoring discussions on social networks and product review sites, marketers can gain insight into consumer attitudes and take the opportunity to respond and build dialog.

Provide Efficient Sales Support

Field sales teams and distributors require access to marketing support material, such as brochures, presentations, product data sheets, and advertising or email templates. By storing digital versions of campaign material in a secure Web portal and providing access to authorized users, marketers can simplify distribution of support material and increase control over its use.

Improve Collaboration

Using desktop video or Web-conferencing tools, marketers can collaborate with colleagues in sales and product development or account teams in advertising agencies and public relations consultancies. Collaboration tools can speed product development by making it easy for teams to meet and take decisions, rather than trying to arrange face-to-face meetings. Agency teams can discuss or review campaign proposals and changes to ensure they meet deadlines.

Improved Business Communication

The importance of technology in society and business can be seen in how technology expands the reach and efficiency of many forms of internal and external communication.

Field sales representatives and technicians, for instance, no longer have to return to an office to receive assignments. Instead, they take calls or mobile messages while in the field, alerting them to the next scheduled appointment. Business representatives traveling for work can stay connected to the office and colleagues, and email enables mass distribution of messages to people across geographical boundaries.

Externally, technology enhances opportunities for marketing communication. Social media, email, mobile phones and chat features allow companies swifter and more interactive communication platforms relative to traditional, one-way media options.

However, do note that using technology for communication is not the only solution and can be problematic for a business if a certain type of interaction would be better facilitated face to face. A funeral director would not want to rely on impersonal text messages for example, as the personal touch is critical during this difficult time in their clients’ lives.

Production Benefits of Technology in Business

No matter what your industry, business size or primary activities, technology allows opportunities to optimize production beyond what you could produce without it. Small companies can often compete with larger firms in operational efficiency, thanks to access to high-tech equipment and tools. Manufacturers constantly look to upgrade equipment to compete with industry leaders on production efficiency.

In a retail business, technology makes the process of selling to and servicing customers much more efficient as well. Scanning barcodes at a checkout is faster than finger-punching numbers in a cash register. Also, as items get scanned, companies capture important data for precise marketing and inventory management.

Facilitated Inventory Management

Raw materials suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, retails and B2B providers all have inventory management processes. Technology is used to organize items systematically in a warehouse or storage room. Matching computer information to inventory storage spaces helps associates pull stock as quickly as possible. Companies can quickly compare inventory when it comes in the door to order sizes on the computer screen.

Many inventory processes are automated. Retailers, for instance, often use vendor managed inventory approaches where suppliers automatically send replenishment when alerted that stock is low at a store. Organized, efficient inventory control helps minimize inventory costs while meeting customer demand.

Easier Financial Record-Keeping

Companies’ small and large use advanced software programs to manage accounting and finance tasks. In fact, companies often use programs that sync accounting with point-of-sale terminals and bookkeeping programs, such that each purchase or sale transaction is automatically captured in an accounting platform. Using technology to manage financial record-keeping minimizes manual processes, reduces costs and helps protect against human error.


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