Using Self Monitoring To Increase Self Regulation In Young Children
- Sub Theme
- The overall background of the participants of the project
- Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
- What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
- What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
- What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from literature.
- What did you want to achieve in this research project?
- Who were the participants in your project?
- How did you try to solve the problem?
- What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
- What were the findings and conclusion?
- Summary of the Project
- How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
- What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
- List the works you cited in your project.
Using Self Monitoring To Increase Self Regulation In Young Children
Promoting children’s well-being
Name of the School (Govt Model Primary School Kiranwali):
GMPS KIRANWALI was situated at main Eminabad Road. There were 8 teachers and 300 students enrolled in the school. The school building was looking very good. There were more than 6 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity, and other basic facilities were available for the students.
This action research project is titled “USING SELF-MONITORING TO INCREASE SELF-REGULATION IN YOUNG CHILDREN” at GMPS Kiranwali.
Demographic details of participants: For the present research 100 participants were selected from the School, their ages were between 12-15 years. Among 100 students, there were 50 girls and 50 boys thus they make the total of 100 students as a sample for the present research.
The socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status was not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socioeconomic conditions were not good. Such families don’t have enough means to manage the expenses of their children’s studies. The participants belong to middle-class families who don’t have rich sources for learning. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.
Location of the school: The present research was conducted in a Government school “GMPS Kiranwali” in the Gujranwala district.
The school had great discipline and was very organized in the teaching curriculum of the Gujranwala test board. The school also shows a great 80-90% annual results every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.
Occupation / Profession and earning trends:
That was the rural area most people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people were working in offices and well-educated jobs and remaining were laborers.
I notice that the literacy rate of the village was not so bad. The literacy rate was 35 percent but it was good other than around the villages. Parents’ meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of the village. Almost 20% of parents were well educated and other parents were illiterate.
Special Traits of Community:
The community where the school was situated had good hobbies like gardening, plantation, playing cricket, and football. Students participate in games and then go to a high level. A private school was present in this village. People respect the teachers.
Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
The reason behind the selection of the topic: The aim of this study was to increase self-regulation by using self-monitoring in young children at the primary level. Although, the present topic had been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all the students at different levels,s, especially at the primary level in their academic careers. This study is to gain awareness about the self-monitoring and self-regulation of students. This research provides insight to determine the effectiveness of the strategies used in schools. This study helped the school environment in improving their Classroom environment Strategies which ultimately enhance the self-regulation of students’ concentration and increase the achievement level of the students as well.
I have selected the above topic because now a day it was a common problem of all. Students lack self-regulation during the period. That’s why students cannot control their reactions and feelings in class. Students lack self-regulation in class for the base of the following reasons. I selected the above topic so this research identifies the solution to this problem. These reasons are discussed one by one in detail.
Unhappy childhood where parents (or other significant people such as teachers) were extremely critical. Poor academic performance in school results in a lack of self-regulation. Ongoing stressful life event such as a relationship breakdown or financial trouble
The way we were treated in our family of origin can affect us long after childhood. For instance, if you had a parent who constantly belittled you, compared you to others, or told you that you would never amount to anything, you likely carry those messages with you today. A parent’s struggles with mental health and substance abuse can also change your relationship with the world.
Anxiety about school or grades can be another deeper issue leading to a lack of self-regulation in the classroom. Students who are overwhelmed or stressed by a subject may simply check out, leading to dropping grades and confidence.
Lack of motivation
In some cases, your child’s self-regulating problem may actually be a motivation problem. This lack of motivation can lead to a number of issues in the classroom—including disinterest in the material.
Frustration is the unpleasant experience when things are not working the way you want them to work. … In some people, especially those that find it difficult not to blame others for their misfortune, frustration often leads to anger.
Lack of Self-confidence:
Low self-esteem is characterized by a lack of confidence and feeling badly about oneself. People with low self-esteem often feel unlovable, awkward, or incompetent. They have a fragile sense of self that can easily be wounded by others.
What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
Self-regulation is the ability to monitor and manage your energy states, emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in ways that are acceptable and produce positive results such as well-being, loving relationships, and learning. Self-regulation can be defined in various ways. In the most basic sense, it involves controlling one’s behavior, emotions, and thoughts in the pursuit of long-term goals. More specifically, emotional self-regulation refers to the ability to manage disruptive emotions and impulses.
Self–monitoring is a concept introduced during the 1970s by Mark Snyder, that shows how much people monitor their self-presentations, expressive behavior, and nonverbal affective displays. … It is defined as a personality trait that refers to an ability to regulate behavior to accommodate social situations
When I discussed the matter of self–regulation with my colleague and senior teachers in the school. They said that the Classroom environment is a critical part of effective instruction. Effective classroom management, which begins with efficient lesson planning preparation, helps the teacher to teach, self-monitoring and self-regulating the children. “Students thrive in a positive class climate and an environment in which they feel safe cared for and involved”.
From a student perspective, an effective Classroom environment provides students with opportunities to increase self-regulation by using self-monitoring.
From a teacher perspective, effective classroom management involves preventive discipline and interesting instruction”. Similarly, the Classroom environment is important because it keeps students motivated to continue their work, provides appropriate instruction and feedback, and increases self-regulation that can keep disruptive behaviors down to a minimum”. The effective teacher is an extremely good classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom and cannot build self-regulation in students”. “If students are disorderly and disrespectful, and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm”.
Well-managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish”. “Many research studies have resulted that a conducive classroom environment promotes students ‘self-monitoring” and student self-regulation. “Classroom environment strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students”. “The purpose of education is to provide self-regulation in children so they can control their thoughts, respect others and control their emotions. “Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help students to build self-regulation.
The term “self-regulation” refers to one’s ability to monitor and adjust one’s behavior or actions as necessary. It is “a critical component of all learning that looks different at different phases of development” (Cooper, 2007, p. 317). Infants and toddlers possess minimal ability for self-regulation and cannot fully control their emotions. They depend on caregivers for assistance in regulating their behavior and actions (Gillespie & Seibel, 2006, p. 34). According to Boyer (2009), “definitions of self-regulation and emotion regulation are when applied to young children, predicated on the support offered by caregivers and educators” (p. 176). By school age, children can regulate and understand a wealth of emotions that they, as well as others, experience (Bowie, 2010, p. 74). Emotional self-regulation and cognitive self-regulation seem to develop simultaneously (Bodrova & Leong, 2008, p. 57). According to the control-value theory of achievement emotions proposed by Pekrun (2010), children’s attitudes towards academic achievement and self-control are influenced by emotions they associate with completing assignments and the quality of work they submit (cited in Garner, p. 299).
Bodrova and Leong (2008) believe all children should learn to self-regulate, have opportunities to practice the rules of certain behavior and apply those rules in new situations, possess visual and tangible reminders about self-regulation, and learn from a curriculum that includes and emphasizes play and games (p. 38). Providing the experiences, support, and encouragement that help very young children learn to self-regulate is a critical element in quality care (Gillespie & Seibel, 2006, p. 39).
There is a plethora of research dedicated to the study of self-regulation in young children, and the ways teachers and parents can assist in its development. Current studies suggest teaching self-regulatory skills through modeling and scaffolding or self-monitoring (Rafferty, 2010; Reid, Trout, & Schartz, 2005; Bowie, 2010; Florez, 2011; Gillespie and Seibel, 2006; Bodrova & Leong, 2008).
Florez (2011) says the best way to teach self-regulation is through modeling and scaffolding during everyday activities. She suggests modeling, using hints and cues, and gradually withdrawing adult support (p. 49). Similarly, Gillespie and Seibel (2006) state educators can help children self-regulate by observing closely, responding, providing structure and predictability, arranging developmentally appropriate environments, defining age-appropriate limits, and showing empathy and caring. While the observations and opinions of adults are informative, they cannot replace children’s self-reports of their thoughts and feelings (Bowie, 2006, p. 75).
There are many ways to determine a child’s attitude towards his or her ability to self-regulate. Pintrich and Zimmerman (2005) recall, “self-regulation theory has long recognized the importance of a feedback cycle in which individuals systematically self-assess and self-evaluate their behavior” (cited in Reid, Trout, & Schartz, 2005, p. 362). According to Rafferty (2010), self-management interventions have been successfully taught and used by children from all grade levels (p.51).
Mace, Belfiore, and Hutchinson (2005) focused on the method of self-monitoring, which they describe as a “multistage process of observing and recording one’s behavior” (cited in Reid, Trout, & Schartz, p. 362). They believe the individual must identify the target behavior and then record the frequency of its occurrence. Rafferty (2010) presents a longer process in which the teacher identifies the target behavior, operationally defines the target behavior, collects baseline data, determines if it is appropriate behavior to remediate, designs the procedure and all materials, teaches the student how to self-monitor, monitors the student’s progress, and fades the use of intervention (p. 52). At the end of this process, children are expected to recognize when they are exhibiting the undesirable target behavior and determine the appropriate action for correcting the behavior. Axelrod, Zhe, Haugen, and Klein (2009) conducted a study in which students with attention and behavior problems used a self-monitoring log to track their behavior while completing homework. The children were to complete the logs in 3-minute and 10- minute intervals alternately. Participants showed an improvement in on-task behavior during homework completion and the frequency of incomplete homework assignments decreased (p. 331).
Pelco and Reed-Victor (2007) suggest an individualized intervention approach for children with difficulties in learning-related social skills and those who demonstrate chronic or intense problems. They mention O’Neill’s use of a functional behavior assessment to determine the best strategies to meet the specific needs of each student. This method allows for the addition of more guided practice and reinforcement of new skills for children with more severe problems (as cited in Pelco & Reed-Victor, 2007, p. 39).
In a study conducted by Bowie (2010), children ages 5.5-12 years old were interviewed to determine the severity, regularity, and duration of their emotional experiences. The researcher found a correlation between responses to these questions and future externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Children who admitted having difficulty regulating anger were more likely to report depressive symptoms 2.5 years later (Bowie, 2010, p. 81). A study conducted by Rydell (2010) showed a similar result where low levels of emotional regulation foreshadowed long-term behavioral problems (cited in Garner, p. 298).
There appears to be a common belief in current research that self-monitoring is an important part of teaching children to self-regulate. When children are in charge of recording their behavior, they become more aware of the impact they have on others. The data created during this process serves as a visual reminder for them to correct their behavior. Scaffolding also seems to be a vital part of this process. In order for children to reflect on their behavior, they must be shown an example of what is expected. This model serves as another observable cue for children to monitor and adjust their conduct.
What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from literature.
Variables of the study:
A total of three variables were included in this research. Two were independent variables and one was the dependent variable. Self-monitoring and classroom environments were independent variables and students’ self-regulation was used as the dependent variable.
Self–monitoring shows how much people monitor their self-presentations, expressive behavior, and nonverbal affective displays. It is defined as a personality trait that refers to an ability to regulate behavior to accommodate social situations.
- Classroom environment:
Creating a safe, positive classroom environment is key to effective teaching and learning.
Resources in this section address how an instructor might keep students motivated, and how to prevent, detect and deal with cheating, plagiarism, and other infractions of academic integrity. We examine what constitutes professional conduct and civility in an academic setting and how to deal with breaches of both. Information is also available on how instructors might create and maintain a diverse, inclusive, and safe classroom environment for building self-regulation in students.
- Self-Regulation of Students:
Self-regulation is the ability to calm down in times of upset and cheer up when things are not going well. Self-regulatory processes begin developing at a young age. Children learn appropriate ways to express their emotions by observing their peers and adult role models. In the Primary Montessori prepared environment (3-6-year-olds), children are taught skills for self-regulation including how to resolve conflicts with peers and utilize strategies for calming down without teacher assistance. The child’s ability to self-regulate is crucial to the flow of the prepared environment. When a child can manage their own behaviors he or she relies less on outside controls.
“The aim of this study was to analyze that “Using self-monitoring to increase self-regulation in young children.” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives were designed:
- To analyze the relationship between the Classroom environment and students’ self-regulation.
- To analyze the relationship between self-monitoring and students’ self-regulation.
- To find out the problems of the children in building self-regulating behavior.
- To give suggestions for the improvement of the situation.
RQ1.What is the relationship between the Classroom environment and students’ self-regulation?
RQ2.What is the relationship between self-monitoring and students’ self-regulation?
RQ3. What are the problems of the children in building self-regulating behavior?
RQ4.What are suggestions for the improvement of the situation?
The population of the study comprised boys and girls studying at GMPS KIRANWALI, Punjab province of Pakistan.
A total of “100” students (50 boys and 50 girls) and 4 teachers were taken as a sample of the study. More Eminabad City was taken as a Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, the total sample size was 104 respondents including teachers and students. This sample provides appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school GMPS.
It was descriptive and survey research about “using self-monitoring to increase self-regulation in young children”.
A population was otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of public schools in Pakistan. The data was collected from students’ public schools by filling up the questionnaire.
Sample and sampling techniques:
In research, a sample was a gathering of individuals, that were taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 100 students and 4 teachers were selected from a government school.
Data collection procedure
Data was collected through questionnaires. Open-ended and closed-ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed-ended questionnaires, 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2), and strongly Disagree (DA=1).
The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. The questionnaire was the form in which different questions were asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.
Questionnaires were three in counting and labeled as:
1-Closed Ended Questionnaire for students about the Classroom environment and its impact on students’ self-regulation.
2-Open Ended Questionnaire for students about self-regulation.
3-Questionnaire for students’ suggestions for good focus in the classroom that builds self-regulation.
Questionnaire for students:
- An unhygienic classroom environment has a bad impact on the self-regulation of the students.
- Noise in the class increase stress in the mind of the students which leads to decreased self-regulation.
3. Self-monitoring behavior has a good impact on students’ self-regulation.
- Creative activity methods of teaching in the class increase self-regulation of the students.
5. Boring attitude of the teacher create laziness in students.
- Stress on the mind of students decreases self-regulation of students.
7. High patient levels of the students have a positive impact on students’ self-regulation.
Questionnaire for Teachers:
- The culture of the school has an impact on the psyche of teachers and students.
- Physical Resources help teachers with effective classroom management.
- Activities in the class attract the students toward teachers and build self-regulation.
- If teachers have good monitoring abilities, then students have also.
- Teachers’ behavior has an impact on students’ self-regulation.
After the collection of the data, it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance. SPSS software was used for data analysis.
1 Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that an unhygienic classroom environment has a bad impact on the self-regulation of the students.
- The overall majority (80%) of the respondents agreed that noise in the class increase stress in the mind of the students that leading to a decrease in self-regulation.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that Self-monitoring behavior has a good impact on students’ self-regulation.
- The overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that the creative activity method of teaching in the class increase self-regulation of the students.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that the Boring attitude of the teacher creates laziness in students.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that Stress on the mind of students decreases self- regulation for students.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that the High patient level of the students has a positive impact on students’ self-regulation.
8. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that the Culture of the school has an impact on the psyche of teachers and students.
9. Overall majority (78%) of the respondents agreed that Physical Resources help teachers with effective classroom management and building self-regulation in students.
10. Overall majority (85%) of the respondents agreed that Activities in the class attract the students toward teachers and build self-regulation.
11. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that If teachers have good monitoring abilities, then students have also.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that Teachers’ behavior has an impact on students’ self-regulation.
The researcher in this study, from the findings, concluded by analyzing the following conclusion:
The purpose of this action research project was to study and identify the effects of a self-monitoring system on the social-emotional behavior of young children. The design allowed students to become more aware of their emotions by recognizing how they feel and identifying factors that may negatively or positively impact their mood. After reviewing the data, it seems there is still a need for assisting children with self-regulation. Although the weekly average of disruptive behaviors observed per day increased, the actual recorded number of behaviors observed remained the same most days. With the exception of a few days, the number of disruptive behaviors observed stayed in the range of zero to two behaviors a day. As previously discussed, the same child may have exhibited the majority of tallied disruptive behaviors.
questionnaires showed the children’s need for additional assistance in waiting patiently, identifying how one’s actions affect others, and accepting responsibility when something goes wrong. Some of the children appeared to develop a greater awareness of their emotions through this action research. Towards the end of the study, more children were observed sharing how they feel and working together to solve their problems rather than running to the teacher for a solution. Research results were expected to show a heavy drop in the number of disruptive behaviors and a meaningful increase in the frequency of self-regulatory behaviors. There may be several explanations for why this did not occur.
University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub-theme. The topic that I selected is “USING SELF-MONITORING TO INCREASE SELF-REGULATION IN YOUNG CHILDREN”. I selected this topic because I had to face problems with self-regulation in school. it is difficult to create concentrating environment in the class during teaching.
The sample comprised a total of 100 students and 4 teachers drawn from the Primary school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by a simple random sampling technique.
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a self-monitoring system on the social-emotional behaviors of children in a mixed-age early childhood classroom. Data was collected using a teacher questionnaire, and student feedback. Findings indicated that disruptive behaviors increased and children’s ability to communicate their emotions and recognize emotions in others only slightly increased. Although the results displayed minimal changes in students’ ability to self-regulate, some children appeared to become more aware of their feelings and utilized effective strategies for sharing how they felt and improving their mood. Further research might focus on a smaller group of children that need assistance with self-regulation or include an easier method of obtaining student feedback.
The aim of this study was to investigate using self-monitoring to increase self-regulation in young children. My research in rural areas basic skills. My project participants were the students and teachers of govt model primary school Kiranwali situated in More Eminabad. in rural areas most people do not maintain discipline.
The classroom atmosphere is a very important element in the study because it helps build self-regulation by using self-monitoring in students.
So I used a different technique for creating a Hygienic atmosphere in the class. Students were developing the skill of self-regulation on the base of a hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teachers create a hygienic atmosphere in the class then students have no problem with self-regulation and focusing on education. Students respond to the implementation of teaching if they teach in a hygienic atmosphere. I created a hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities. I learn how to improve students’ self-regulation by self-monitoring during my study. Finally, I feel satisfied.
It added some new things to my knowledge key points are given below.
- It made me a good organizer.
- It made me ready for everything that is thrown their way.
- It enabled me how to create a Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom for building self-regulation in students.
- Test onboarding is helpful for building self-regulation in students.
- It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
- Before these activities, I was not a good organizer. it made me innovative.
- I started finding out new things I did have not inserted. But when I started my project a great change brought in my thinking.
- I am capable to find out new things for building self-regulation in students.
- It made me a good effective teacher and mentor.
- It made me a good role model.
- It made me confident. Teachers‘ self-regulation can help influence others to be better people.
- It made me capable to understand how to create a classroom atmosphere according to students’ psyches to maintain self-regulation and focus at the primary level.
- It told me how an unhygienic atmosphere effect students’ self-regulation level and focus.
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