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The impact of Imam Ghazali and Ibn-e-khuldun is still visible in our present day education system

Question:

The impact of Imam Ghazali and Ibn-e-khuldun is still visible in our present day education system. Discuss it with real life examples.

Answer:

Imam Ghazali and Ibn-e-Khuldun are Muslim philosophers.

IMAM GHAZALI:

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazzali is one of the most important Muslim scholars of Islamic thought. He was a philosopher, a legal scholar, thinker. Imam Ghazali was an expert in the field of fiqh al-Syafii’ and Kalam al-Asy’ari. Imam Ghazali was remained a teacher at University of Nidzamiyah in Baghdad.

Al-Ghazali’s philosophy of education is based upon Islamic perspective on education.For Al-Ghazali, the aim of education is to care or protect the  human beings so that they abide by the teachings of religion and hence forward will be rewarded in the life. Children learn from society and from their surrounding environment. These elements play vital the development of their behaviors and personality. The children are also learn more from being under the influence of their families, their customs, traditions, language and religious traditions. Therefore, children’s education is the major responsibility of parents. This responsibility is also shared by the teachers.Because teachers are also play an important role in the development of children. A good brought up will result in a good character and help to live a good life; while, a bad brought up will spoil the character and life of children and then  it will be difficult to bring them back to the right path. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the significant characteristics, thoughts needs of the children. Al-Ghazali emphasized on early childhood education. He stressed that parents should observe their children’s education since birth. According to Al-Ghazali, children are the responsibilities of their parents. If they brought up of children is in a good manners and in a good environment, they will become good human beings. On the other hand, if children are exposed to bad behavior.

Al-Ghazali emphasized to reward children. He explained that when children demonstrate good manners, they should be rewarded and praised so that they would become happy and their performance also gets better. Moreover, when children accidentally commit mistakes, parents should pretend as if they have not notice the mistake and do not ever embarrass them by telling other people about the mistakes done. However, if children repeat the same mistake for the second time, parents should talk to them discreetly and tell them that they should not do such things.

At elementary stage, children must be trained to be obedient to their parents, teachers, and elders. They must also behave well towards their fellow students. Attention must also be paid on their company as it affects their character and behavior. Therefore, they must advise to have intelligent and truthful friends.

. Teachers must also play their role and concentrate on the religious education. children must also be taught everything they need to know about the precepts of religious law. Al Ghazali said that teachers should consider the differences in ability and character among students, and deal with everyone appropriately.

Classification of sciences:

Al-Ghazali has described following classifications of sciences according to:

  1. Classification according to ‘nature’
  2. . practical (politics, home economics and ethics),
  3. Classification according to their ‘origin’
  4. theoretical (religious and theological)

Al-Ghazali divides the philosophical sciences into six categories:

  1. logic
  2. Natural sciences,
  3. Mathematics,
  4. Politics
  5. Metaphysics

IBNE-KHULDUN :

Ibne Khaldun was a great Muslim philosopher of history and the first social scientist. Ibn e Khaldun has made three most significant contributions to social sciences. He obtained his basic education from his father who was a renowned scholar. He was keenly interested in tradition, grammer, poetry, language and law. He also studied Philosophy, theology, logic, and other many Islamic subjects. He learnt Quran by heart. Ibn e Khaldun was an expert in fiqh, nahu, hadith, poetry and philosophy. Ibne Khaldun had described the educational process in the perspective of the development of society. He illustrated his theory of education in the framework of Islamic society and pay more attention on the education from a religious and ethical point of view . The Muqaddima contains a systematic treatment of philosophy of history. Besides this it contains his views on the aspects of state, society and education.

According to Ibne Khuldun,:

“ thinking ability is human beings’ special gift of God”

The faculty of reflective thinking is the source of knowledge. It distinguishes man from

animals. It is of three types:

  1. Discerning intelligence
  2. Experimental intelligence
  3. Speculative intelligence

Ibne Khaldun believed that the attainment of knowledge was the natural need of human beings because they provide the power of reasoning and thinking. He believed that reality should be known by realisation instead of thinking effort as believed by philosophers. Therefore for Muslims the first condition for knowing the reality is the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). The aim of education for Ibne Khalun is to make Muslims firm believers in God through the study of Quran and religious sciences. Knowledge of God and faith in Islamic laws will make Muslims know the reality which in turn will lead to good action and good character. Ibne Khaldun had described that children should not be taught in difficult manners. Ibne Khaldun had emphasized that children drill method and teaching aids must be used to make children learn.

According to Ibne Khaldun instruction must be started with calculation, because it is usually concerned with simple knowledge and systematic proofs. Moreover, calculation has a sound basis and requires self-discipline, soundness.

Ibne Khaldun dividing sciences into two categories:

  1. Primary sciences
  2. Secondary sciences

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