The Effect Of Contemporary Teaching Method On Students
- Sub Theme
- The overall background of the participants of the project
- Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
- What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
- What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
- What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from the literature.
- What did you want to achieve in this research project?
- Who were the participants in your project?
- How did you try to solve the problem?
- What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
- What were the findings and conclusion?
- Summary of the Project
- How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
- What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
- List the works you cited in your project.
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The Effect Of Contemporary Teaching Method On Students
Developing Basic Skills
The overall background of the participants of the project
Name of the School (Govt Model Primary School Kiranwali)
(Overall background of the participants of the project; area/school (socio-economic status, occupation/profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated)
GMPS KIRANWALI is situated at main Eminabad Road. There are 8 teachers and 300 student enrolled in the school. School building is looking very good. There are more than 6 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity and other basic facilities are available for the students.
This action research project titled “THE EFFECT OF CONTEMPORARY TEACHING METHOD ON STUDNTS” at GMPS Kiranwali.
Demographic details of participants: For the present research 60 participants are selected form the School students, their ages are between 12-15 years. Among 60 students, there are 30 girls and 30 boys thus they make the total of 60 students as a sample for the present research. So total sample size was 60 respondents.
Socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status is not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions are not good. Such families don’t have enough means to manage the expenses of their children study. The participants belong to middle class families who don’t have rich sources for leaning. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.
Location of the school: The present research is conducted in a Government school “GMPS Kiranwali” which is situated in the district of Gujranwala.
The school has great discipline and is very organized in teaching curriculum test board. The school also shows great 80-90% annual result every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.
Occupation / Profession and earning trends:
That’s was rural area mostly people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people were working in offices and well educated jobs and remaining were laborers.
I notice that the literacy rate of the village it was not so bad. Literacy rate 35 percent but it was good other than around the villages. Parents meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of village. Almost 20% parents were well educated and other parents were illiterate.
Special Traits of Community:
The community where the school was situated have good hobbies like gardening, plantation, and playing cricket, football. Students participate in games and then go to high level. Private school were present in this village. People respect to the teachers.
Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
The reason behind the selection of the topic: The purpose of this study is to gain awareness about teaching strategies and compare the Teamwork method of teaching and traditional lecture method of teacher that influence the students learning skill and academic performance“.“ The research will provide insight to determine the effectiveness of the strategies used in government schools and private schools“.“ This study will help the teaching in improving their teaching strategies in classroom which ultimately increase the learning skill and academic performance of the students“.
The aim of this study was to explore the Impact of contemporary teaching method on students’ performance at primary level. Although, the present topic has been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all the students at different level especially at elementary level in their academic careers. Students’ abilities are always evaluated based on their performance in examination systems. Many student’s despite being brilliant through the academic still remain unable to perform in their exams and thus fail. I have selected the above mentioned topic for my research because I think it needs to be explored to help our students in their Team work.
Poor performance by students in examination: students despite studying whole year in a class still remain unable to pass the final exams. They do not perform best o their ability and thus fail the exams due to lack of group discussion.
Examinations a benchmark of success and failure: The provision of quality education is the basic right of every human being from its society. To meet this goal, every country is taking key initiative and focusing on the adaptation and integration of the latest technologies in teaching and learning group activities both for the improvement of teachers’ efficiency and effectiveness and classroom management.
Effective education refers to the degree to which schools are successful in accomplishing their educational objectives. School facilities and classroom management plays an important role to provide standard education. In the case of student admission in average school, the result of the student will also average. If the case of student attending classes in the effective school but the teacher is ineffective then the results decrease below average. Effective teaching cannot perform in poor managed environment. Better results demand the facilities, strategies and management of classroom in the positive context. For all these workings, the teacher should be experienced and creative mind and able to manage teaching learning area in the attractive sense.
Bio-Psychological conditions of the students: Our examination systems do not take into account the bio-psychological conditions of the students and keeps them on the pattern of drill enforcing them to learn and group discussion. Thus many students fail to perform well in exams. Thus students feel more comfortable in producing their ideas in urdu rather than English but that is not the requirement of their curriculum as they have to present their ideas in English language.
Lack of motivation of group discussion: our students are not motivated by their teachers infect they are just enforced to learn in group discussion. No one tells them why group studying is important for them. However, grouping is often considered that it’s the waste of time, and students spend their most time in talking irrelevant discussion during group studying.
What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
Contemporary teaching methods is the act of using the ideas and philosophies of educators before us and combining it with your own ideas and philosophies to form a new way of teaching the next generation. Creativity has become a necessity in the classroom and creates new ways to teach. The term teaching method is used for general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used by a teacher for instruction to achieve the desired students’ academic performance outcomes. To maximize student academic performance, the teachers have to choose a suitable teaching method. This selection of teaching methodology has great impacts on the outcomes of teaching learning process. According to Webster’s dictionary a body of methods, procedures working concepts, rules and postulates employed in the solution of a problem or doing something is called methodology.
When I discuss the matter of contemporary teaching methodology and students leaning with my colleague and senior teachers in the school. Mostly teachers argue that there are two common teaching methodologies i.e. teacher centered methodologies’ and learner centered methodologies. The students and the teachers work together in classroom or in teaching learning situations. When teacher dominates in teaching, it is known as Teacher centered methodologies or teacher controlled instruction. When learners dominate in teaching learning situation, it is called Learner centered methodologies or learner controlled instruction methods. There are teaching learning situation in which interaction or participation of both the learners as well as of the teachers are essential, called interactive process of teaching. The teaching learning situations in which group participation is encouraged are termed as action oriented methods.
Hence the actions, teaching methods, and the instructional material used during the active learning class are termed as group activities. The teaching method in which students are directly involved in learning process through learning group activities is termed as group activities learning,
The effective teaching method and teacher quality as a critical factor affecting student academic performance the amelioration of learning and behavioral disorders and broad educational outcomes for students, such as primary completion and participation in elementary, elementary and post elementary education careers”. “Both of these measuring tools for schools have placed an emphasis on teaching and learning”. “If a teacher does not possess strong teaching method skills, her teaching will not foster student academic performance”.
Some teachers may use teaching strategies that have a positive impact on the performance of students, but some methods may be harmful for the child and the classroom”. “However, little is known regarding how student outcomes might differ by teacher classroom teaching method style”. “Therefore, Team work teaching is needed in study that contrasts teacher instructional and behavioral teaching styles in the important outcomes of percent of students passing statewide standardized tests.
What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
Contemporary Method of Teaching
The actions, teaching methods, and instructional material used during the active learning class are termed group activities. The teaching method in which students are directly involved in the learning process through learning group activities is termed as group activities learning (Borich, 2004) Lecture–group activities method of teaching is a composite method that includes the merits of the lecture method as well as group activities learning. It attempts to filter out the demerits of both the types of methods. In this method students acquire knowledge and understanding by participating in a set of specially designed group activities, rather than by passively listening to a teacher.
According to the Farlex dictionary the word “contemporary” means the state or the quality of being active or an educational task that involves experience and participation of the students. Hence anything which is done in the physical setting with a purpose is termed as Team work (www.the freedictionary.com).
According to Kochhar, (1990) anything which is carried out with a purpose in social environment involving physical and mental action is called as contemporary teaching method. There are three main types of group activities which are as under:
(i) Exploratory — Knowledge getting.
(ii) Constructive — Experience getting.
(iii) Expressional — Presentation.
According to the Collin dictionary contemporary teaching is a type of teaching in which student acquire knowledge by participating in a set of especially designed learning group activities rather than by passive listening to a teacher monotonous talk.
Learning group activities are good medium for importing education. Group activities give reality to learning and effective teaching. Teachers design classroom group activities according to their needs and abilities. In this method teacher, design conduct and supervise classroom. Team work learning is on the philosophy that a student learns best in a fearless and friendly and democratic environment by the interaction of the physical group activities in the surroundings. It is a student centered teaching method.
According to Borich, (2004) John Dewey’s Laboratory School was the first-ever institute where Teamwork Curriculum formally experimented. Dewey’s theory of progressivism emphasizes the child and his interest rather than the subject matter; thus emphasis came to child-centered curriculum and child-centered schools.
Prasad, (2005) states that the great educationalists Rousseau and Pestalozzi were also been the admirer of contemporary teaching methods. Rousseau (1712-1778) advocates the use of pictures and things instead of mere teacher’s words while Pestalozzi (1756- 1827) put the “Object Method Theory” i.e. “Teaching process must be directed to the learner’s natural curiosity” proposed by Rousseau into action.
A comparative study was done by Yasmeen, (1984) to observe the impacts of Team work teaching and traditional learning methods for the subject of English at elementary level results revealed that Team work learning is more effective than the traditional lecture method.
Shymanskey, Hedges, &Wordsworth, (1990) evaluated 81 comparative studies of the traditional lecture method and Team work teaching methods came to the conclusion that Team work teaching methods are more affective with regard to students’ academic performance and retention.
Kinchin, (2000) “Effective teaching methods”, Borich, (2004) “Concept mapping in English”, Fensham, (2008) “Science education policy making”, all are of the view that lecture method is comparatively less effective than the learning group activities with regard to transmission and acquisition of knowledge. They all regarded group activities as a meaningful source for the students to talk, listen, read, write, and reflect their ideas.
Duncan. (2005), Jason, (2006) & Beichner et al., (2007) all concluded from their research studies that the group activities teaching methods are more effective than the traditional lecture method for the student’s cognitive development, academic performances and retention capabilities of the acquired knowledge.
Beichner., (2007), Redish & Hammer., (2009), Night & Wood., (2009) & Mayer et al., (2009) all in them researches concluded that group activities learning methods are more effective with regard to the students’ academic performance score as compared to the students who were taught with the traditional lecture method.
Ali, (2010) has conducted a research study titled as “Effectiveness of modular teaching in English at elementary level” concluded that lecture Team work method is more effective than the traditional lecture method with regard to student’s academic performance and retention.
The use of Teamwork method of teaching in classroom can be defined as the process of planning, analyzing, directing and controlling all the group activities of the classroom by utilizing all human and material resources efficiently and effectively to achieve the desired goals (Oxford dictionary).
Classroom management is the orchestration of the learning environment of a group of individuals within a classroom setting. As a result of this comprehensive definition of classroom management, research has moved away from a focus on controlling behavior and books instead of teachers, actions to create, implement and maintain a learning environment within the classroom (Jones, V.F. 2012).
Title “Team work Teaching in science concept at V standard level: An Experiment” Attention activation strategies were effective in enhancing the span of attention and perceptive skills. Attention activation strategies enhance the perceptive skills of learners and perceptive skills of learners and perceptive skills improve the academic performance level of learners and bring better results. Learners should be given training to enhance their level of attention for developing their perceptive skills in learning. Attention activation strategies have both cognitive and physical aspects for joyful and effective teaching to facilitate learning. A child’s growth depends on developing perceptive skills. In the development of the perceptive skills, it is essential that the teacher should make the learners active rather than passive. The teacher should provide a variety of experiences of the same subject in a variety of situations to help batter acquisition of knowledge and to build the perceptive skills (A.R. Saravana Kumar & S. Mohan). G. Manimaran, K. Anandan studied on opinion of the Primary Teachers towards the Teamwork – Learning.
What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from literature.
Variables of the study:
Two variables included in this research. One is independent variables and one is dependent variable. Contemporary teaching method is independent variable and student’s performance is dependent variable. Contemporary teaching strategies included Activity based method of teaching, direct instruction, inquiry learning, cooperative learning, effective classroom environment, group discussion.
Teaching is the process of using clay (student) to produce something. It is up to teacher’s competency that how much he makes his teaching effective. Effectiveness of teaching is directly proportional to the effective learning. It is difficult to define effective teaching because it is complex process. Kinder (1981, p.109) said that ” Effective teaching includes not only mastery is subject matter its organization and presentation but also in reading skills”.
Parrot (L982, p.9) has given definitions of teaching as ” the mode of producing inquiring, considering and seeking our either correct or incorrect results ability in taught. It is just plugging in the field for the sake of good crops”.
Smith (1969, p.56) describes ” A teacher should be prepared in four areas of knowledge:
- Display of attitude that foster learning and genuine human relationship.
- Command of theoretical knowledge about learning and human behavior
- Command of knowledge in the subject matter to be taught.
- Control of technical skills of teaching her facilities pupils learning.
Direct instruction is the most common form of instruction. This is the lecturing method of teaching. Many teachers use this teaching method almost exclusively, as it is considered the simplest, and one can cover large amounts of material in a short period of time. However, this is not the most effective teaching method to teach all students, especially younger ones, who often need a more engaging, hands-on strategy in order to learn effectively. In addition, it is hard for teachers to tailor instruction to students at different levels.
Inquiry learning is a teaching method which is rapidly gaining popularity in the United States. on the scientific method, this teaching method can be used for virtually all subjects. Using inquiry learning takes a lot of time, energy, and planning, but it is often very effective. Students practice problem solving and critical thinking skills to arrive at a conclusion. This teaching method is extremely student- centered and student-directed, and can be modified for students at any level, reaching them where they are. Teachers will generally need to start by modeling the process to the students.
Cooperative learning is another teaching method that is considered highly effective when done correctly. With cooperative learning, students are put in small groups to work together. They are usually not grouped by ability, but put in a group with children at a variety of levels. The students are then given tasks to accomplish together. Teachers may need to monitor these groups carefully, to make sure they are staying on task and that all students are participating. This form of instruction also lends itself well to differentiation, because the teacher can assign specific tasks to children at different ability levels.
For example, can often work well in classrooms of small or moderate size. Teacher typically acts as a moderator for this type of lesson, so one might begin the discussion but then pass the process of learning off to the students. This can be one of the most effective teaching methods for students who want to be engaged in their own learning, but can be less effective in other settings.
Academic performance or “academic achievement” is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Research has shown that the top four factors that impact student achievement are: classroom management, teaching for learning, home and parent involvement, and believing that all students can learn. Most things in life are pretty simple, but they are usually not easy.
What did you want to achieve in this research project?
The aim of this study is to analyze the Impact of contemporary teaching methods on students’ performance at the primary level. To achieve said aims, the following objectives are designed:
1 To check the effect of contemporary teaching method on students learning in public schools.
2 To compare effectiveness of the contemporary method of teaching and simple traditional method of teaching at primary level schools.
3 To find out the significance difference of contemporary teaching method of teaching between male and female students.
RQ 1. What is the effect of contemporary teaching methods on students learning in schools?
RQ 2. What is the effectiveness of the contemporary method of teaching and the simple traditional method of teaching at primary-level schools?
RQ 3. What is the difference between the contemporary methods of teaching male and female students?
Who were the participants in your project?
The population of the study comprised all the boys and girls studying at GMPS KIRANWALI situated in the province of Pakistan.
Table 6.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
A total of “60” students (30 boys and 30 girls) and were taken as a sample of the study. More Eminabad City was taken as Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, total sample size was 60 respondents including students. This sample provide appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school GMPS.
How did you try to solve the problem?
The study was concerned with the learning skills of the students taught by Traditional Lecture methods and Group activities method of teaching at primary level.
A learning skill test was developed by the researcher with the help of the research advisor and experts of teaching in order to use it as a pilot-test, pre-test, post-test and retention test for the measurement of the students learning skills on the contents taught to them during the experiment. This test was on the content of five chapters from text books of Punjab.
It was a multiple choice items test consisting of 100 test items, each item had 1 mark. These tests had 100 marks in total.
Improvement of the achievement Test
The achievement test prepared by the researcher was got checked by the three assistant professors of the Basic education expert.
After getting correction, deletion, amendment and improvement, it was finalized for pilot test launching. The finalized test with some ignorable changes was used as pre-test, post-test and retention test.
To compare the learning skills of the students’ taught by traditional lecture method and contemporary method of teaching at primary level, an experiment was conducted in following steps:
For the treatment purpose the control group was taught by using traditional lecture method of teaching while the experimental group was taught by using Team work method. The researcher himself taught both the groups for treatment. Different lesson plans for the control and experimental group were used during the entire treatment. The experiment was continued for two weeks. At the end of each chapter a same quiz was administered for both the groups marked and tabulated. At the end of the eight week an achievement test was again administered as posttest. After one month of the experiment, the same achievement test was again administered as retention test. The answer scripts were marked and tabulated as per key.
What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
This experiment was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of the Traditional Lecture method and contemporary teaching method at elementary level. For this purpose, pre-test, post-test equivalent group design was adopted. An achievement test was administered in the start of experiment, termed as pre-test. The answer scripts were marked and tabulated. On the basis of the achievement scores of the pre-test the subjects were randomly divided into two groups the control and the experimental group having almost the same value of arithmetic mean and standard deviation. After a treatment of the two weeks, the same instrument was used as post-test for both the groups. The answer scripts were marked and tabulated as per key. After period of one-month retention test of both the groups the answer was one again marked and tabulated.
The student’s scores in these achievement tests i.e. pilot test, pre-test, post-test and retention test served as data of the experiment.
Analysis of Data
The raw score obtained from the achievement tests (pre-test, post-test and retention test) were arranged in tabulated form for interpretation. Mean scores, standard deviation, significance of the differences between means, co-efficient of variation, pooled variance and standard error of the means were used for the analysis of data.
Significance of the difference between mean achievement scores of both the groups; the experimental and the control group as well as of different variables such as the high achievers, the low achievers, boys and girls, girls and girls, boys and boys were calculated applying “t” statistic at 0.05 level of the significance. The Significance of the Difference between Means is calculated by using the “t” formula given by (Mangal, 2004), which is as under:
Degree of freedom” df” is calculated to find “t” value by using the following formula for small sample:
After calculation of “df”; the value of “t” is observed in “t” table under the column 0.05 or 5% or 0.01 or 1% of significance to reject or accept the null hypothesis. If the calculated value of “t” comes greater than the tabulated (critical) value, the null hypothesis is rejected. If the calculated value of “t” comes less than the tabulated (critical) value the null hypothesis is accepted (Mangal, 2004).
What were the findings and conclusion?
At the end of the study, the following findings were made:
- There is a significant difference in the learning skill of students taught Basic science concepts using contemporary teaching strategy (Experimental group) and their counterparts who were taught same concepts using the lecture method (control group). The experimental group achieved significantly higher than the control group.
- There is a significant difference between the retention level of students taught Basic science concepts using contemporary teaching strategy and those taught same concepts using lecture method. The students exposed to contemporary teaching strategy. Retained the taught concepts significantly better than their counterparts exposed to Lecture method.
- There is no significant difference in academic performance between the students of different schools taught Basic science concepts using the Team work teaching strategy, thus Team work teaching strategy is gender friendly.
From the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn:
- Contemporary method of Teaching strategy that teachers employ in teaching has significant effects on student’s academic performance.
- Contemporary teaching strategy facilitates effective learning of Basic science concepts.
- Students that were taught using Team work Teaching Strategy retained the learned concepts significantly better than those taught the same concepts using conventional Lecture Teaching Strategy.
- Neither the male nor the female students performed significantly better than the other when Basic science concepts were taught to them using either the contemporary Teaching Strategy or the conventional lecture method. Both teaching methods appear to be environmental friendly.
- Lecture method of teaching science appear to be inferior to Team work teaching strategy in the teaching of Basic science concepts as they affect negatively the student’s academic performance and retention of the learned science concepts.
Summary of the Project
This study investigated effects of contemporary teaching method on academic performance among primary school’s students. It also investigated the effects of school environment and management related differences on students’ academic performance in the concept of measurement when taught using contemporary teaching methods and Lecture methods.
The sample comprised a total of 60 students of 5th and 4th class drawn from primary schools of district Gujranwala. They were selected by simple random sampling technique.
A 100-item multiple choice instrument, the academic performance Test (CWT) with a reliability co-efficient of .979 was used to collect relevant data which were analyzed using t- test statistical package. The results obtained were presented and discussed in chapter four. This study has the following major findings.
How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of contemporary teaching method on students’ performance. My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students of govt model primary school Kiranwali situated in More Eminabad.in rural areas mostly people not maintain discipline.
Contemporary teaching method is very important in study because it helps building self-motivation in students. Appreciation and praise offering are very helpful for building motivation in students.
So I used different technique for creating Hygienic atmosphere in the class. Students were happy and learn quickly on the base of hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teacher create hygienic atmosphere in the lass then students have no problem of self-motivation and focus in education. Students response to the implementation of teaching if they teach in hygienic atmosphere. I created hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s motivation level and focus during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.
What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added some new things in my knowledge key points are given below.
- It made me good organizer.
- It made me ready for everything that is throw their way.
- It enabled me that we can perform every task from students just on the base of motivation and by creating interest.
- It enabled me how to create Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom for building self-motivation in students.
- Appreciation helpful for building self-motivation in students.
- It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
- Before these activities I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
- I started find out new things before I have not insert. But when I started my project a grate change brought in my thinking.
- I capable to find out new things for building self-motivation in students.
- It made me good effective teacher and mentor.
- It made me good role model.
- It made me confident. Teacher ‘self-motivation can help influence other to be a better person.
- It made me capable to understand how to create classroom atmosphere according to student’s psyche to maintain self-confidence and motivation at primary level.
- It tells me how students’ involvement effect on student’s self-motivation level and focus.
List the works you cited in your project.
- Ali, Shoukat et al. 2013. Factors Contributing to the Student’s Academic Performance: A Case Study of Islamia University Sub-Campus. American Journal of Educational Research, 1(8): 283-289.
- Akhtar, Zarina 2012. Factors Affecting the Students academic performance: A Predictive Study. International Journal of Social Science and Education, 2(1): 281-287.
- Faaz, M. and Khan, Z.N. 2017. A Study of academic performance of Upper Primary School students in Relation to their different teaching methods. Asian Journals of Research in Social Science and Humanities, 7(6): 121-127.
- Gupta, R.P. and Katoch, K. 2013. A Study of effective teaching methods and the academic performance of Xth Grade Students. International Journal of Behavioral Social and Movement Sciences, 2(4): 9-21..
- Abdelhamid, T. S. (2003). Evaluation of teacher-student academic performance style disparity in construction management education. Journal of Construction Education. Vol. 8(3) 124-145.
- Barrows, H. S. (2000). Problem Learning Applied to Medical Education. Springfield, IL: Southern Illinois University School of Medicine.
- Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer.
- Berkson, L. (1993). Problem learning: Have the expectations been met? Academic Medicine, 68(Suppl.), S79–S88.
- Betts, M. and Liow, S.R. (1993). The relationship between teaching methods and educational objectives in building education, Construction Management and Economics,Vol. 11, 131-141.
- Abdullahi, A. (1982). Teaching in Nigeria. Ilorin, Atoto Press Limited,
- Blair, G. M. Jones, R.S and Simpson, R.H (1908). Educational Psychology, London, the Macmillan Company.
- Bloom, B.S. (1958). Taxonomy of Education Objectives. Handbook David Mokay Company, New York.
- Brekke, S.E. (2005). True scientific literacy for all students: teacher features, Chicago.
- Brunner, J.S. (1961). Act of discovery. Haward Educational Review, 31 : 21– 32.
- David, S.O. (2007). Effects of Team work teaching method on the academic achievement of slow learners in chemistry at the senior elementary school level. Unpublished Med. Thesis. Department of Education (Science) of the Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
- Doyle, J.A. (1989). The Pupil as a Scientist Milton, Open University Press.
- Encarta Reference Library (2006).
- Esiobu, G.O. and Soyibo, K. (1995). Effect and Vee mapping under three learning modes on students cognitive academic performance in ecology and genetics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 32(9): 971 – 998.
- Eze, A.E. (1982). «Effect of Guided Discovery Mode of Laboratory Instruction on Elementary School Physics Learning». Journal ofScience Teachers Association of Nigeria. 27(1): 147 – 155
- Federal Ministry of Education (2007). 9 years Basic education curriculum, Basic Science for Junior elementary 1 – 3. Nigerian Education Research and Development Abuja – Nigeria.
- Ajaja, O. P. & Eravwoke, O. U. (2010). Effects of cooperative learning strategy on junior elementary school student’s academic performance in integrated science. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 14(1). Retrieved from http://ejse.southwestern.edu Ali, R. (2010). Effectiveness of Molicular Teaching in Biology at Elementary level. Thesis Abdulwali Khan University , Mardan.