Role Of Outdoor Games On Children Self Efficacy

Background

Name of the School (Govt Girls Elementary School khan piyara).

(Overall background of the participants of the project; area/school: (socio-economic status, occupation/profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated)

GGES KHAN PIYARA:

GGES Khan Piyara is located in Khan Piyara, tehsil and district Gujranwala. There are 12 teachers and 700 students enrolled in the school. The school building is looking very good. There are more than 7 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity, and other basic facilities are available for the students.

This action research project is titled “Role Of Outdoor Games On Children Self Efficacy.” At GGES Khan Piyara.

Demographic details of participants: For the present research 40 participants are selected form the school, their ages are between 10-12 years. I selected students from grade 6th from sections A. Among 40 students, there are all girls thus they make the total of 40 students as a sample for the present research.

Socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status is not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions are good. Such families have not enough means to manage the expenses of their children study. The participants belong to middle class families. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.

Location of the school: The present research is conducted in a public school “Govt Girls Elementary School” which is situated in the district Gujranwala.

The school has great discipline and is very organized in teaching curriculum of Gujranwala board. The school also achieves great 80-90% annual result every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.

Occupation / Profession and earning trends:

That’s was rural area mostly people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people well educated jobs and remaining were laborers. I got the occupation information from the index of school register.

Literacy Rate:

I notice that the literacy rate of the city it was not so bad. Literacy rate 35 percent. It was good. Parent’s meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of the located. Almost 25% parents were well educated and other parents were uneducated.

Special Traits of Community:

The community where the school was situated have not strong financial condition mostly people were laborers. They have to do strict effort to fulfill the school expenses of their children. Students participate in games and then go to high level. Private school were present in this village. People respect to the teachers.

Theme:

Developing Students well-being

Sub-theme:

(Developing Self-Efficacy)

Topic:

ROLE OF OUTDOOR GAMES ON CHILDREN SELF EFFICACY.

1. Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.

(Give the background and rationale of the study)

The reason behind the selection of the topic: This action research was designed to investigate the role of outdoor games on children’s self-efficacy.  Although, well-managed school provide an environment in which outdoor games conducted for students to increase the level of self-efficacy”. “Many research studies have resulted that a conducive classroom environment promotes students ‘self-efficacy through outdoor games”. “Classroom management strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students in building self-efficacy”. “The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning”.  “Therefore, teachers should know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help students to improve student performance as well as increase self-efficacy.”.

The following reasons behind lack of student self-efficacy which was observed in the school. This research identifies the solution of these.

1.Focus Just on Books Reading:

Some school teachers just focus on books reading. Thay do not involve the students in any other physical task like outdoor game which can be helpful for building confidence and self-efficacy in students.

2.Poor Mental Health:

Poor mental health is also associated with rapid social change, stressful work conditions, gender discrimination, social exclusion, unhealthy lifestyle, physical ill-health and human rights violations. There are specific psychological and personality factors that make people vulnerable to mental health problems.

 3.Emotional Immaturity:

Emotional immaturity as a condition where a person hasn’t given up the desires or fantasies of their childhoods. These desires and fantasies have to do with them being the center of the universe. They can also even involve “bending” reality to be what they want.

4.Irresponsibility:

Irresponsible is not capable of handling assignments or taking responsibility. An example of an irresponsible person is someone who constantly forgets to do her assignments.

5.Poor Home Environment:

Home environment is usually a place in which an individual or a family can rest and be able to store personal motivation. But if home environment not motivated like parents quarrels with on another all the time, then this thing has most negative impact on the mind of students.

6.Lack of Interest in School Activities:

Lack of interest can be caused by difficultly concentrating, family problems, emotional difficulties, learning disabilities, and many other factors. Having said that, as a teacher, you still have to do your best and try to get them to learn at least the basics of any subject.

7.Resistance to School Rules and Regulations:

Policies are important because they help a school establish rules and procedures and create standards of quality for learning and safety, as well as expectations and accountability. Without these, schools would lack the structure and function necessary to provide the educational needs of students. But some students not follow this. These things lead to decrease in self-esteem of students.

I have selected the above topic because now a day it is a common problem of all. Students have lack of self-efficacy during the period. Students do not focus in class on the base of following reasons. I selected the above topic so this research identifies the solution of this problem.

2.What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem.

(Provide your discussion with your colleague or supervisor for better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions).

self-efficacy is “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.” Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation.

When I discuss the whole matter role of outdoor games on children efficacy with my other colleagues and senior teachers it was argued that self-efficacy and encouragement should be a major area of concern to teachers and students. This is the concern of this chapter which tends to summarize what is essential to be known about the self-efficacy building process as it relates to outdoor games, rewarding system and encouragement. Almost all the teachers and colleagues were in favor of the statement that the outdoor games and encouragement are possessing self-efficacy. Because outdoor games and self-efficacy are very alternative. No any students can get fluency in one skill without other skill. The researcher conducted this study which focused on the Development of self-efficacy that lead to good behavior and performance of students.

A teacher’s most important activity in a typical class environment is the one related to classroom management that leading to build self-efficacy in students through games. Appreciation ultimately enhance good behavior and personality like praise, reward offering. But punishment cannot apply for all students. Punishment put negative impact on some students like punished the students. Learning and teaching cannot take place in a mismanaged classroom. In limited terms, classroom management is the management of the class by educational motives. Contemporary understanding of classroom management approach calls for conceiving class as a system. Class in educational system is a subsystem of educational management and at the same time a formal organization. Within this framework, classroom management could be defined as the process of arranging the classroom environment and its physical structure under the laws in order to satisfy the expectations of the educational system, the curriculum, the school, the lesson, the teacher and of the students, constituting the rules, relation patterns and administration of class order; planning, presenting and evaluating educational activities, recognizing students’ assets; providing student motivation; arranging classroom communication pattern; attaining classroom discipline,  effective and productive employment of time, human and material resources in order to prevent students’ undesired behavior.

Self-efficacy is a response, which an individual show to his environment at different times. Self-efficacy can be positive or negative, effective or ineffective, conscious or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. Self-efficacy can be regarded as any action of an organism that changes its relationship to its environment. Self-efficacy provides outputs from the organism to the environment. The meaning of Self-efficacy is to conduct or carry oneself or behavior in what we do, especially in response to outside stimuli anything that an organism does that involves action and response to stimulation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of outdoor games in development of student’s self-efficacy of Elementary school students.

3.What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books / articles/websites)?

(Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem).

Effective and outdoor learning process is directly related to the effective classroom management. Without effective classroom management, teaching learning has no fruitful and productive outcomes. Effective classroom management depends on the competencies (capacity, proficiency) of teachers. Good managers devise and announce classroom rules and regulations at the beginning of session in order to control classroom disruptive behaviors and make the classroom atmosphere favorable for teaching learning process.

Teachers use a variety of outdoor games and stimulus (encouragement) to motivate students. According to Ivancevich and Matteson (1990:171) “teachers use a variety of outdoor games to attract and maintain students and to motivate them to achieve their teaching goals.” Rewarding students is therefore vital for the teaching success. Incentives are external stimuli which can be used as stimulants to productivity.

When a behavior leads to desirable outcomes, it is more likely to occur in future situations. Therefore, reinforcing is merely the impact seen by the reinforcing agent. To determine whether an event is capable of reinforcing its impact should be considered.

Armstrong (2012), states that “outdoor activities deals with the strategies, policies and processes required to ensure that the people’s value and contributions they make to achieving developmental goals of teaching and rewarded.” It can therefore be seen that rewards play an important role in motivating students to perform at their best and also to maintain top performers. Lathan’s (2002:45) observes that “teachers provide rewards to their personnel in order to try to motivate their performance and encourage their loyalty and maintained.”

As already demonstrated, extrinsic motivation is a deeper issue than it come because it may undermine intrinsic (natural) motivation under certain conditions and promote it under others conditions. (Williams & Stockdale, 2004). However, it is worthwhile for all teachers have an understanding of extrinsic outdoor games because “many of the tasks that educators want their students to perform are not inherently interesting and knowing”. How to promote more active and volitional (a choice or decision made) forms of extrinsic motivation becomes an essential strategy for successful teaching’. (Ryan & Deci,2000).

It is important to understand that before analyzing different outdoor games options, factors that affect reward strategies and practices. Each teacher is faced with a number of internal and external factors that affect the self-efficacy is structured and administered. Armstrong (2010), identifies teaching culture, sector or work environment, students, teaching strategy, school climate as key internal variables that affect reward strategies. Each of these factors are different for each school and the teachers will develop a reward system based on how it values each of the variables. Armstrong (2010:17).

These factors play an important role and may force teachers to take certain decisions. In discussing different types of outdoor games and incentives it is important to first categorize these. Rewards can be viewed as intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards “are intangible (invisible) rewards concerned with the work environment (quality of education, the teachers teaching) recognition, performance management and learning and development” Armstrong (2002:99). Kinicki and Kreitner (1998), state that financial, material and social rewards are extrinsic rewards because they come from the environment.

To apply a self-efficacy to a classroom students, a teacher must first understand what a self-efficacy is and what the advantages n disadvantages are when using it. The term reward is broadly defined as a tool that teacher use to try and reinforce a desired behavior (Wetzel and Mercer, 2003). The elements that determine the effectiveness of a reward are how it is delivered by the teachers and how it is perceived by the student (Wetzel and Mercer, 2012). If a teacher delivers a reward for good behavior, the student must make the connection between the right behavior and the reward. If students think they were rewarded for a different behavior, then the given reward will not be effective, and the student will have associated getting a reward with the wrong behavior (Wetzel and Mercer, 2012). So, teachers need to make sure that when giving rewards, student understand why they received them.

Categories of Reward

Rewards can be broken down into categories;

  1. Intrinsic rewards
  2. Extrinsic rewards

Intrinsic Rewards

When a student receives an intrinsic reward, it is because they have completed an assignment or task due to internal motivation (Williams & Stockdale, 2004). Some common intrinsic rewards are ‘‘task completion, feedback or result, acquisition of knowledge or skill, and a sense of mastery’’ (Wetzel & Stockdale). However, this award can be beneficial compared to extrinsic rewards, because they do not require an external stimulus, such as the teacher. The student will stay on task because they are motivated by their own determinations. However, intrinsic reward will not always be Satisfactory for students, since they may not have any internal motivation to complete a task.

Extrinsic Rewards

Extrinsic rewards are rewards given by someone outside of the individual, such as a teacher (Wetzel & Mercer). Some common extrinsic rewards are ‘‘primary objects, tangible objects, token systems, social approval, and project activities’’. In 1991, Newby found by new teachers use extrinsic rewards and motivation more than any other strategy. Extrinsic rewards may motivate student complete tasks that they would otherwise disregard. However, this reward can have a negative effect, where students grow dependent on them for motivation in completing their assignments.

In the classroom, most rewards will be a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. For instance, students may engage in an activity both because of what, they will learn will be the intrinsic rewards, while the grade that they receive will be the extrinsic rewards.

It is important to understand, before analyzing different reward options, factors that affect reward strategies and practices. Each organization is faced with a number of internal and external factors that affect the reward system is structured and administered. (Armstrong, 2010) identifies organizational culture, the organizations business or sector or work environment, people, business strategy, political and social climate as key internal variables that affect reward strategies. Each of these factors are different for each organization and the organization will then develop a reward system based on how it values each of the variables. For example, “Bankers, entrepreneurial directors or sales representatives will be more interested in financial incentives than, say people engaged in charitable work” (Armstrong, 2010:17).

External aspects that may affect reward strategies include globalization, rate of pay in the marketplace, the economy, societal factors, legislation and trade unions, (Armstrong, 2010). These factors play an important role and may force organizations to take certain decisions for example trade unions in South Africa have a big influence in worker package and incentives.

In discussing different types of rewards and incentives it is important to first categorize these. Rewards can be viewed as intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards “are intangible rewards concerned with the work environment (quality of working life, work life balance) recognition, performance management and learning and development” Armstrong (2002:99). Kinicki and Kreitner (1998) state that financial, material and social rewards are extrinsic rewards because they emanate from the environment.

Tom Peters argues that by following the right method of rewarding, one can obtain excellent results. The Theorist Edward. Lorler believe that reward must be dependent on performance (Cohen, 2013).

The biggest mistake any parents can make is to delay the reward for an appropriate behavior. A reward will be most effective if it immediately follows the behavior. So that the desirable behavior is validated.  (Patterson, 1983). Rey states that during the delay between the behavior and reward, the subject may exhibit, other behavior. Thus, the targeted behavior may remain undeveloped since the unwanted behavior is also reinforced. (Seyf, 2011).

4.What were the major variables / construct of your project? Give definitions / description from literature?

(what are the key terms in your topic or study? What do you mean of these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project).

Variables of the study:

Total three variables included in this research. two were independent variables and one was dependent variable. Outdoor games and encouragement used as independent variables and student’s self-efficacy used as dependent variable.

1.Outdoor Games:

Activities include backpacking, canoeing, canyoning, caving, climbing, hiking, hill walking, hunting, kayaking, and rafting. Broader groupings include water sports, snow sports, and horseback riding. Outdoor recreation allows individuals to engage in physical activity whilst being immersed in nature.

2.Students Encouragement:

Tangible forms of encouragement give students a visual reminder that they have the power to learn and succeed. They are especially effective when used sparingly or in moderation after students achieve learning milestones in the classroom

  • Give Positive Feedback. …
  • Set Realistic Expectations and Celebrate When They Are Met. …
  • Let Your Own Excitement Come Through. …
  • Vary Your Teaching Methods. …
  • Facilitate Don’t Dominate. …
  • Make Topics Practical. …
  • Show StudentsTheir Own Successes. …
  • Get Out of the Book

 3.Self-Efficacy:

self-efficacy is “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.” Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation. self-efficacy is about having the strong, positive belief that you have the capacity and the skills to achieve your goals. Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavor. By determining the beliefs, a person holds regarding their power to affect situations, it strongly influences both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make.

5.what did you want to achieve in this research project?

(Objective/ purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project).

  • Research Objectives

Purpose of the study the role of outdoor games on children efficacy So, the study will focus on the causes of problems of students regarding this.” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives are designed:

Objectives of the Study

Following was the main objective of the study.

  1. To explore the relationship between outdoor games and students’ self-efficacy at Elementary level.
  2. To explore the relationship between student encouragement and self-efficacy development at Elementary level.
  3. To find out the reasons behind the lack of self-efficacy of students.
  4. To give suggestion for the improvement of the situation.

Research Questions of the study

  • What is the relationship between outdoor games and student’s self-efficacy at Elementary level.?
  • What is the relationship between student encouragement and self-efficacy development at Elementary level?
  • What are the reasons behind the lack of self-efficacy of students.?

RQ4. What are the suggestions for the improvement of the situation?

6.Who were the participants in your project?

(Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused in this project e.g., the early grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class 8 who did not have good communication skills).

Population

The population of the study comprised girls studying at Govt Girls Elementary School Khan Piyara of Pakistan.

Sample

A total of “40” students were taken as a sample of the study. Gujranwala City was taken as Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, total sample size was 40 respondents including female students. This sample provide appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school.

 

7.How did you try to solve the problem?

(Narrate the process stepwise. Procedure of intervention and date collection)

Research Methodology

All research methods and techniques that will be used in this study are given below.

Research Method:

Research method may describe into three forms: Quantitative Method, Qualitative method and Mixed Method. In the study, quantitative research method was used, because data was collected by using questionnaire in the light of students’ and teachers’ perception.

Research Design:

It is descriptive and survey research about “Role of outdoor games on children self-efficacy”.

Population:

A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of public school of Pakistan. The data was collected from student’s public schools by filling up the questionnaire.

Sampling Technique

Convenient sampling technique was used in this study.

 Sample

In research a sample is a gathering of individuals, that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 40 students were selected from government school.

 Data collection procedure

Data was collected by through questionnaires. One questionnaire was filled by one student according to his point of view. In this way 40 questionnaire filled by 40 respondents. On the base of this data know the opinion of students, find out the problems of students, and provided solution to sort out these problems. Open ended and closed ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed ended questionnaires 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2) and strongly Disagree (DA=1).

Data Analysis

Data collection measure means the tool through which the data can be collected”. There are different sources of data collection like scales, proxies, and questions. In this study the researcher used appropriate research tools and software to analysis of data, like; SPSS 18 software analysis in which descriptive analysis was used to find out the frequency, percentage, means and minimum/maximum values etc.

 

8.What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?

(For example, observation, Questionnaire, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test etc.)

Instruments:

The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. Questionnaire is the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.

Questionnaires were three in counting and labeled as:

1-Closed Ended Questionnaire for students about outdoor games and its impact on student’s self-efficacy.

2-Close Ended Questionnaire for students about self-efficacy development of students.

3-Questionnaire for students’ suggestions for effective encouragement in the classroom.

Questionnaire for students:

The following main questions guided the collection and analysis of data for the present study. All the information that containing in these questions ultimately helpful for developing self-efficacy in students.

  1. All students are motivated to perform well in outdoor games?
  2. Different techniques used to increase the self-efficacy of students?
  3. Rewards encourage the student to perform well?
  4. Are the students being rewarded positively?
  5. Are the students being rewarded by their unsatisfactory performance?
  6. Outdoor games improve the self-efficacy of students?
  7. Are the students happy after participating outdoor games?
  8. Encouragement of the students develop self-efficacy?
  9. Does the misbehavior of students is change with reward?
  10. Teacher use reward for whole class to improve self-efficacy of the students?

Instruments, participants and procedures of quantitative data collection are presented in the following sections.

Data analysis

After the collection of the data, it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.

9.What were the findings and conclusion?

Findings:

  1. Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Are students are motivated to perform well in outdoor games.
  2. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that Different techniques used to increase the self-efficacy of students.
  3. Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Rewards encourage the student to perform well.
  4. Overall majority (97%) of the respondents agreed that Are the students being rewarded positively.
  5. Overall majority (95%) of the respondents agreed that Are the students being rewarded by their unsatisfactory performance.
  6. Overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that outdoor games improve the self-efficacy of students.
  7. Overall majority (98%) of the respondents agreed that Are the students happy after participating outdoor games.
  8. Overall majority (99%) of the respondents agreed that Encouragement of the students develop self-efficacy.
  9. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that Does the misbehavior of students is change with reward.
  10. Overall majority (95%) of the respondents agreed that Teacher use reward for whole class to improve self-efficacy of the students.

Conclusions

The researcher in this study, from the findings concluded by analysis the following conclusion:

Outdoor games is the most powerful tool of student’s self-efficacy. Encouragement to increase a response not only works better, but allows both parties to focus on the positive aspects of the situation. Punishment, when applied immediately following the negative behavior can be effective, but problems may result when it is not applied consistently. Punishment can also invoke other negative emotional responses, such as anger and resentment.

Teacher-student relationships are crucial for the success of both teachers and students. As a feature of classroom administration, such connections are the most noteworthy factor in deciding an educator’s work as effective. The impact of instructor’s conduct assumes a critical job in the scholastic accomplishment of understudies. An instructor needs to show outstanding sympathy, constancy, industriousness, truthfulness, examine introduction, trustworthiness and adaptability as a man. Instructors likewise should be mindful in the manner by which anything that a living being does that includes activity and reaction to incitement.

Teaching is the activity of teachers for the purposes of education. So, it is the duty of teachers to knowledge the students as well as to develop self-efficacy in them through outdoor games. Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which building students’ self-efficacy.

 

That good classroom management strategies show that reward system develop discipline, critical thinking, student’s confidence policies, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence and honesty in Elementary school students According to the perceptions of Elementary school students (in open-ended question), majority of the respondents (Elementary school students) agreed that students ‘outdoor games have a stronger effect on developing self-efficacy, punctuality, student’s confidence policies, leadership skill, teamwork, character development and adaptability.

10.Summary of the Project

University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub theme. My topic that I choose ROLE OF OUTDOOR GAMES ON CHILDREN SELF-EFFICACY. I choose this topic because I have to face problem about self-efficacy in the school. Because students feel shy when they have to perform in outdoor games. It is difficult to create self-efficacy in the students during teaching.

The sample comprised a total of 40 students drawn from Elementary school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by simple random sampling technique.

This study investigated student’s self-efficacy through outdoor games among Elementary school’s students. It also investigated the effects of school environment and management related differences on students’ academic performance in the concept of measurement when taught using hygienic environment and Unhygienic environment in the class.

Questionnaire Instrument used for students for data collection. Research design was descriptive. The result was finding that the reward system and encouragement develops self-efficacy in students regarding study. Teachers’ behavior and teaching method also impact on students ‘behavior.

 

11.How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt?

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of outdoor games on children self-efficacy.  My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students of Govt Girls Elementary School Khan Piyara situated in Gujranwala district. In rural areas mostly people maintain discipline but not all.

Classroom positive reinforcement atmosphere is very important element in study because it helps in the learning of students. So, I used different technique for creating motivational atmosphere in the class to participate in outdoor games to develop self-efficacy. Students were happy and learn quickly on the base of hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teacher create motivational atmosphere in the class through rewarding system then students have no problem of self-efficacy. Students’ response to the implementation of teaching if they teach in hygienic atmosphere. I created hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities. I learn that how to improve the student’s behavior and personality during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.

12.What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added some new things in my knowledge key points are given below.

  • It made me good organizer.
  • It made me ready for everything that is throw their way.
  • It enabled me how to create motivational atmosphere in the classroom to develop self-efficacy.
  • It built confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students for improving self-efficacy through outdoor games.
  • Before these activities I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
  • I started find out new things before I have not insert. But when I started my project a grate change brought in my thinking.
  • I capable to find out new things.
  • It made me good effective teacher and mentor.
  • It made me good role model.
  • It made me confident. Teacher discipline can help influence other to be a better person.
  • It made me capable to understand how to create classroom atmosphere according to student’s psyche to develop self-efficacy and personality at Elementary level.
  • It tells me how negative punishing atmosphere effect on student’s personality level and communication.

Q.13 List the works you cited in your project.

REFERENCES

Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2007). Preparing pre-service teachers to use positive behavior supports in general education classrooms. Pennsylvania Teacher Educator, 6, 50–57.

Belfiore, P. J., Fritts, K. M., & Herman, B. C. (2008). The role of procedural integrity: Using selfmonitoring to enhance discrete trial instruction. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23, 95–102.

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & Kleinmann, A. E. (2007). A comparison of performance feedback procedures on teachers’ treatment implementation integrity and students’inappropriate behavior in special education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 447–461.

DiGennaro, F. D., Martens, B. K., & McIntyre, L. L. (2005). Increasing treatment integrity through negative reinforcement: Effects on teacher and student behavior. School Psychology Review, 34, 220–231.

Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation? Teacher Education and Special Education, 20, 265–275.

Gresham, F. M., Gansle, K. A., & Noell, G. H. (1993). Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 257–263.

Lane, K., Bocian, K., MacMillan, D., & Gresham, F. (2004). Treatment integrity: An essential but often forgotten component of school-based interventions. Preventing School Failure, 48(3), 36–43.

McBride, B. J., & Schwartz, I. S. (2003). Effects of teaching early interventionists to use discrete trials training during ongoing classroom activities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23, 5–18.

Noell, H. G., Witt, J. C., Slider, N. J., Connell, J. E., Gatti, S. L., Williams, K. L., et al. (2005). Treatment implementation following behavioral consultation in schools: A comparison of three follow-up strategies. School Psychology Review, 34, 87–106.

Scheeler, M. C. (2008). Generalizing effective teaching skills: The missing link in teacher preparation. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17, 145–159.

Scheeler, M. C., & Lee, D. (2002). Using technology to deliver immediate corrective feedback to preservice teachers. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 231–242.

Slider, N., Noell, G., & Williams, K. (2006). Providing practicing teachers classroom management professional development in a brief self-study format. Journal of Behavioral Education, 15, 215–228.

Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. (1992). Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13, 393–417.

Vollmer, T. R., Roane, H. S., Ringdahl, J. E., & Marcus, B. A. (1999). Evaluating treatment challenges with differential reinforcement or alternate behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 9–23.

Wickstrom, K. F., Jones, K. M., LaFleur, L. H., & Witt, J. C. (1998). An analysis of treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 13, 141–154.

Wright-Gallo, G. L., Higbee, T. S., Reagon, K. A., & Davey, B. J. (2006). Classroom-based functional analysis and intervention for students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 29(3), 421–436.

Balleine, B. W., Killcross, A. S., & Dickinson, A. (2003). The effect of lesions of the basolateral amygdala on instrumental conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(2), 666–675.

Baxter, M. G., Parker, A., Lindner, C. C., Izquierdo, A. D., & Murray, E. A. (2000). Control of response selection by reinforcer value requires interaction of amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(11), 4311–4319.

Blundell, P., Hall, G., & Killcross, S. (2003). Preserved sensitivity to outcome value after lesions of the basolateral amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(20), 7702–7709.

Burns, L. H., Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (1993). Differential effects of excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala, ventral subiculum and medial prefrontal cortex on responding with conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity potentiated by intra-accumbens infusions of d-amphetamine. Behavioural Brain Research, 55(2), 167–183.

Cador, M., Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (1989). Involvement of the amygdala in stimulus reward associations— interaction with the ventral striatum. Neuroscience, 30(1), 77–86.

Cardinal, R. N., & Aitken, M. R. F. (2001). Whisker (Version 2.2) [Computer software]. Available from http://www. whiskercontrol.com. Cardinal, R. N., Parkinson, J. A., Marbini, H. D., Toner, A. J., Bussey, T. J.,

Robbins, T. W., et al. (2003). Role of the anterior cingulate cortex in the control over behavior by Pavlovian conditioned stimuli in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(3), 566–587.

Dickinson, A., & Balleine, B. (2002). The role of learning in the operation of motivational systems. In H. Pashler & R. Gallistel (Eds.), Steven’s handbook of experimental psychology: Vol. 3. Learning, motivation, and emotion (3rd ed., pp. 497–533).

New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dickinson, A., & Dearing, M. F. (1979). Appetitive-aversive interactions and inhibitory processes. In A. Dickinson & R. A. Boakes (Eds.), Mechanisms of learning and motivation (pp. 203–231).

Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Everitt, B. J., Parkinson, J. A., Olmstead, M. C., Arroyo, M., Robledo, P., & Robbins, T. W. (1999). Associative processes in addiction and reward. The role of amygdala-ventral striatal subsystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 877, 412–438.

Holland, P. C. (1993). Cognitive aspects of classical conditioning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 3(2), 230–236.

Balleine, B. W., Killcross, A. S., & Dickinson, A. (2003). The effect of lesions of the basolateral amygdala on instrumental conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(2), 666–675.

Baxter, M. G., Parker, A., Lindner, C. C., Izquierdo, A. D., & Murray, E. A. (2000). Control of response selection by reinforcer value requires interaction of amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(11), 4311–4319.

Blundell, P., Hall, G., & Killcross, S. (2003). Preserved sensitivity to outcome value after lesions of the basolateral amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(20), 7702–7709.

Burns, L. H., Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (1993). Differential effects of excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala, ventral subiculum and medial prefrontal cortex on responding with conditioned reinforcement and locomotor activity potentiated by intra-accumbens infusions of d-amphetamine. Behavioural Brain Research, 55(2), 167–183.

Cador, M., Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (1989). Involvement of the amygdala in stimulus reward associations— interaction with the ventral striatum. Neuroscience, 30(1), 77–86.

Cardinal, R. N., & Aitken, M. R. F. (2001). Whisker (Version 2.2) [Computer software]. Available from http://www. whiskercontrol.com. Cardinal, R. N., Parkinson, J. A., Marbini, H. D., Toner, A. J., Bussey, T. J., Robbins, T. W., et al. (2003). Role of the anterior cingulate cortex in the control over behavior by Pavlovian conditioned stimuli in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(3), 566–587.

Dickinson, A., & Balleine, B. (2002). The role of learning in the operation of motivational systems. In H. Pashler & R. Gallistel (Eds.), Steven’s handbook of experimental psychology: Vol. 3. Learning, motivation, and emotion (3rd ed., pp. 497–533).

New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dickinson, A., & Dearing, M. F. (1979). Appetitive-aversive interactions and inhibitory processes. In A. Dickinson & R. A. Boakes (Eds.), Mechanisms of learning and motivation (pp. 203–231).

Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Everitt, B. J., Parkinson, J. A., Olmstead, M. C., Arroyo, M., Robledo, P., & Robbins, T. W. (1999). Associative processes in addiction and reward. The role of amygdala-ventral striatal subsystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 877, 412–438.

Holland, P. C. (1993). Cognitive aspects of classical conditioning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 3(2), 230–236.

Leave a Reply