How Can I Enhance Self Confidence Among Students At Primary Level
- Sub Theme
- The overall background of the participants of the project
- Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
- What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
- What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
- What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from literature.
- What did you want to achieve in this research project?
- Who were the participants in your project?
- How did you try to solve the problem?
- What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
- What were the findings and conclusion?
- Summary of the Project
- How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
- What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
- List the works you cited in your project.
Read More Thesis:Click Here
How Can I Enhance Self-Confidence Among Students At the Primary Level
Developing Basic Skills
Developing Basic Skills
The overall background of the participants of the project
GMPS KIRANWALI was situated at main Eminabad Road. There were 8 teachers and 300 students enrolled in the school. The school building was looking very good. There were more than 6 classrooms and staff rooms. A playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity, and other basic facilities were available for the students.
This action research project is titled “How Can I Enhance Self Confidence Among Students At Primary Level” at GMPS Kiranwali.
Demographic details of participants: For the present research 100 participants were selected from the School, their ages were between 12-15 years. Among 100 students, there were 50 girls and 50 boys thus they make a total of 100 students as a sample for the present research.
The socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status was not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions were not good. Such families don’t have enough means to manage the expenses of their children’s studies. The participants belong to middle-class families who don’t have rich sources for leaning. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.
Location of the school: The present research was conducted in a Government school “GMPS Kiranwali” in the Gujranwala district.
The school had great discipline and was very organized in the teaching curriculum of the Gujranwala test board. The school also shows a great 80-90% annual results every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.
Occupation / Profession and earning trends:
That was rural areas most people are attached to agriculture were 25% of parents of the students attached to agriculture, 5% in the teaching profession .2 % people were working in offices and well-educated jobs and the remaining were laborers.
I notice that the literacy rate of the village was not so bad. The literacy rate was 35 percent but it was good other than around the villages. Parent meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of the village. Almost 20% of parents were well-educated and other parents were illiterate.
Special Traits of Community:
The community where the school was situated had good hobbies like gardening, plantation, and playing cricket, and football. Students participate in games and then go to a high level. A private school was present in this village. People respect the teachers.
Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
The reason behind the selection of the topic: The aim of this study was how can I enhance self-confidence among students at the primary level. Although, the present topic had been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all the students at different levels, especially at the primary level in their academic careers. This study is to gain awareness about the confidence of students and about their performance of students This research provides insight to determine the effectiveness of the strategies used in schools. This study helped the school environment in improving their Classroom environment Strategies which ultimately enhance the self-confidence among students. student’s concentration and increases the achievement level of the students as well.
I have selected the above topic because now a day it was a common problem. Students lack confidence during this period. That’s why students cannot perform well in class. Students lack confidence in class on the base of the following reasons. I selected the above topic so this research identifies the solution to this problem. These reasons are discussed one by one in detail.
Unhappy childhood where parents (or other significant people such as teachers) were extremely critical. Poor academic performance in school results in a lack of confidence. An ongoing stressful life event such as a relationship breakdown or financial trouble.
The way we were treated in our family of origin can affect us long after childhood. For instance, if you had a parent who constantly belittled you, compared you to others, or told you that you would never amount to anything, you likely carry those messages with you today. A parent’s struggles with mental health and substance abuse can also change your relationship with the world.
Anxiety about school or grades can be another deeper issue leading to a lack of confidence in the classroom. Students who are overwhelmed or stressed by a subject may simply check out, leading to dropping grades and confidence.
Not getting proper sleep or nutrition
If your child was not getting the recommended 8-10 hours of sleep each night, he or she won’t have the energy needed to be confident in class. Skipping breakfast is another big cause of lack of focus in class. If your child is heading to class hungry, he or she is more apt to be distracted than learning-ready.
Mismatched learning style:
Different students have different learning styles. Some learn best by seeing, some by hearing, and others by doing. Your child’s teacher emphasizes a learning style that doesn’t match how your child learns, this can result in a lack of confidence and understanding.
Lack of motivation
In some cases, your child’s confidence problem may actually be a motivation problem. This lack of motivation can lead to a number of issues in the classroom—including disinterest in the material.
Doesn’t understand the material:
What might look like a lack of confidence could actually be a lack of understanding of the material. This lack of understanding can lead students to stop paying attention and consequently fall further behind.
What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
The term confidence means the feeling or belief that one can have faith in or rely on someone or something. To maximize student academic performance, the teachers have to create a hygienic environment in the class that enables the students to build confidence in their personalities. This strategy has a great impact on the outcomes of the teaching-learning process.
When I discussed the matter of confidence with my colleague and senior teachers in the school. They said that Classroom environment is a critical part of effective instruction”. “Effective classroom management, which begins with efficient lesson planning preparation, helps teachers to teach and students to learn. “Students thrive in a positive class climate and an environment in which they feel safe cared for and involved”.
From a student perspective, an effective Classroom environment provides students with opportunities to socialize while learning interesting content”.
From a teacher’s perspective, effective classroom management involves preventive discipline and interesting instruction”. Similarly, the Classroom environment is important because it keeps students motivated to continue their work, provides appropriate instruction and feedback, and managing student work, and can keep disruptive behaviors down to a minimum”. The effective teacher is an extremely good classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom and cannot build self-confidence in students”. “If students are disorderly and disrespectful, and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm”.
Well-managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish. Many research studies have resulted that a conducive classroom environment promotes students’ academic achievement” and students’ self-confidence. “Classroom environment strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students”. “The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning to take place”. “Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help students to build self-confidence.
What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
The research by Allwood et al. (2006) also provided evidence that the children were not less skilled than adults in using the confidence scale. Here, it is of relevance that Erev et al. (1994) suggested that the within-subject standard deviation of the confidence judgments can be used as an indicator of the presence of noise in the confidence judgments. In general, the presence of noise (non-relevant factors affecting the measurement) is expected to be bigger for more difficult tasks. If the children had been less skilled in using the confidence scale, it is likely that the error variance for their confidence judgments would have been higher than that of the adults.
In order to investigate this issue, Allwood et al. (2006), for each of the four confidence scales, compared the error variance within the children’s individual confidence judgments with the corresponding variance in the confidence judgments of a group of adults in a comparable study.
The result was that the children did not show higher error variance than the adults for any of the four scales Subsequently, Allwood and co-workers (2008), using similar methods, demonstrated that children as young as 8–9 years show comprehension of the numerical scale. Kleitman et al. In addition, these authors also showed that the 8–9-year-old children were able to give confidence judgments at a level that more or less perfectly mirrored the level of correctness of the specific assertions in their memory recall of an event that they had experienced 1 week earlier.
However, this was only the case when they answered an open, free-recall question (‘Tell me everything you can remember about the event’). When the children’s confidence rated the correctness of their answers to questions posed by another person on specific details of the experienced event, they showed overconfidence bias. That is, their average confidence was higher than the accuracy of their answers. Moreover, the error variance within the children’s individual confidence judgments did not differ from the corresponding variance for the adults in this study. This reassures that children as young as eight, as well as adults, understand and utilize well-validated confidence measurement scales.
Additional reviews of research on confidence for episodic memory in the calibration tradition are given in Allwood (2010a, b). The studies reviewed in this chapter use two versions of scales (pictorial and line) as evaluated by Allwood et al. (2006). These confidence ratings immediately follow the cognitive act of providing responses to the typical cognitive test items, rather than relying on a general perception of one’s own way of acting. As such, these confidence ratings serve as a more accurate measure of self-confidence than the general self-report items such as ‘I feel self-assured’ and ‘I’m self-confident that rely on Likert scales (Stankov 1999; Kleitman 2008).
It is important to note that studies with adult samples indicate limited or no relationships between confidence levels and personality factors which include this type of self-report questionnaire, for example, extroversion (e.g. Dahl et al. 2010). The only exception to this is the openness to experience dimension which shares a positive correlation of low to moderate size (rarely above .30) with these on-task, online measures of confidence (see Kleitman 2008, for a review).
The role of confidence judgments in academic work and in everyday memory use has become more comprehensible by the memory model presented by Koriat and Goldsmith (1996). In this model, confidence judgments are an integral part of ordinary memory retrieval and reporting. Three phases are assumed in the model: retrieval, that is, activation of information in memory; automatic monitoring, that is, evaluation of the correctness of the retrieved information; and finally, control, that is, a decision with respect to whether the retrieved information should be reported or not. The control phase is especially relevant in the present context, where it is assumed that the rememberer uses the spontaneously generated confidence judgments to regulate which retrieved memories to report. Thus, when a person can choose what information to report, they can regulate whether the information should be reported or not. This would depend on how confident they are about the memory and on the basis of how important they think it is that they are correct in their current social context. For example, when speaking to a friend, the child may use a lower criterion for what to report than when speaking to a teacher or when giving testimony in court. In a study testing this memory model, Koriat et al. (2001) found that when they were given the possibility to choose which questions to answer, 7–12-year-old children were also able to improve the accuracy level of their answers to questions on the content of a slideshow that they had seen earlier.
There is much empirical evidence attesting to individual differences in confidence ratings in adult populations (see Kleitman 2008; Stankov and Lee 2008). That is, the correlations between accuracy and confidence scores from the same test are significant (average between .40 and .50). However, correlations between confidence ratings from a broad battery of diverse cognitive tests have been consistently high enough to define a strong, broad self-confidence factor. This reflects the habitual way in which adults assess the accuracy of their cognitive decisions across a diverse variety of cognitive stimuli. That is, adults who are more confident on one task (e.g. general knowledge tests), relative to their peers, also tend to be more confident across other tasks (e.g. math achievement, tests of reasoning, or different perceptual tasks). In other words, regardless of the nature of cognitive stimuli, the relative ranking of self-assessment of the accuracy of one’s own performance remains stable. Thus, the confidence levels converge to define a psychological trait that marks important metacognitive experiences (Kleitman and Stankov 2001, 2007; Stankov 1999; Stankov and Lee 2008).
8.2.2 Self-Confidence Trait in Children Kleitman and colleagues conducted several studies to examine the generality of confidence levels in Australian children aged 9–13, using a variety of cognitive and achievement tests (see Kleitman et al. 2011, for a review). Again, the results in all our studies show high internal consistency reliability estimates for confidence ratings, ranging between .84 and .96
Kleitman and colleagues (e.g. Kleitman and Moscrop 2010) employed factor analysis to examine the consistency of confidence judgments in children. Their results demonstrated that a self-confidence factor, similar to the one found among adults, exists in children as well. In other words, confidence judgments in children across different cognitive domains tend to define a single factor.
Just as with adults, this factor belongs to the metacognitive realm (Kleitman and Moscrop 2010). Kleitman et al. school fees and parent-child family dynamics. That is, teachers tend to assign higher grades to children who assessed their own performance more favorably compared to children who were less confident in their performance. This was true irrespective of the child’s age, gender, intelligence, and other key factors. This attests that students with higher levels of confidence appear to be getting better reports from school, which most likely would positively influence their level of confidence. This cycle may continue, influencing children’s and then adults’ subsequent confidence, aspirations, and performance. 8.4 Factors That Influence Self-Confidence Since metacognitive experiences of self-confidence hold promise for improving learning outcomes, it is important to identify those factors that affect confidence levels. In our studies, we typically employ a variety of cognitive tests which capture different areas of learning (reading, writing, and mathematics) and cognition (crystallized and fluid intelligence). Depending on the research design, these tests also assess confidence levels. Confidence ratings for all attempted test items are averaged to give an overall confidence score, which is used in statistical analyses and reports. Throughout this chapter, we use the term self-confidence to refer to the broad psychological trait which emerges from confidence scores on different tests when used together within the study. Before we can start exploring the factors that affect the self-confidence trait, it is necessary to point to an important distinction between internal (person-driven) and external (ecological) factors that influence metacognition. We shall first consider internal influences.
What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from the literature.
Variables of the study:
A total of four variables were included in this research. Three were independent variables and one was the dependent variable. Activity-based methods of teaching, Audio Visual aid, and classroom environment were independent variables, and student confidence was used as the dependent variable.
- Activity-based Method of Teaching:
The activity method is a technique adopted by a teacher to emphasize his or her method of teaching through activity in which the students participate rigorously and bring about efficient learning experiences. It is a child-centered approach. … Learning by doing is the main focus of this method.
- Audio Visual Aids:
audio-visual aids are defined as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc. used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”. These are more helpful tools for bringing clarity in the concepts. In this way students understand easily and increases self -confidence in their personalities.
- Classroom environment:
Creating a safe, positive classroom environment is key to effective teaching and learning.
Resources in this section address how an instructor might keep students motivated, and how to prevent, detect and deal with cheating, plagiarism, and other infractions of academic integrity. We examine what constitutes professional conduct and civility in an academic setting and how to deal with breaches of both. Information is also available on how instructors might create and maintain a diverse, inclusive, and safe classroom environment for building self-confidence in students.
- Self–confidence Students:
There is no denying the fact that the relationship between a student’s confidence and educational success is intertwined. Self-confidence is one’s ability to judge his own social and personal standing with respect to his environment. self-confident. … Confidence is a feeling of trust in someone or something. To be self-confident is to have confidence in yourself. Self-confident people don’t doubt themselves. This is usually a positive word: you can be self-confident without being cocky, arrogant, or overconfident.
What did you want to achieve in this research project?
“The aim of this study was to analyze “How can I enhance self-confidence among students at the primary level.” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives were designed:
- “To analyze the relationship between Classroom environment and students’ self-confidence”.
- To identify the Audio Visual aids that are used in the classroom to improve students ‘ self-confidence.
- To analyze that the Activity-based Method of teaching, is helpful for building self-confidence in the personality of students.
RQ1.What is the relationship between Classroom environment and students’ self-confidence?
RQ2.What are the AV aids that are used in the classroom to improve students’ self-confidence?
RQ3. “How Activity based method of teaching helpful for building self-confidence in the personality of students?
Who were the participants in your project?
The population of the study comprised boys and girls studying at GMPS KIRANWALI, Punjab province of Pakistan.
A total of “100” students (50 boys and 50 girls) and 4 teachers were taken as a sample of the study. More Eminabad City was taken as a Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, the total sample size was 104 respondents including teachers and students. This sample provides appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school GMPS.
How did you try to solve the problem?
It was descriptive and survey research about “How can I Enhance self-confidence among students at the primary level”.
A population was otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of public schools in Pakistan. The data was collected from students’ public schools by filling up the questionnaire.
Sample and sampling techniques:
In research, a sample was a gathering of individuals, that were taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 100 students and 4 teachers were selected from a government school.
Data collection procedure
Data was collected through questionnaires. Open-ended and closed-ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed-ended questionnaires, 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2), and strongly Disagree (DA=1).
What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. The questionnaire was the form in which different questions were asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.
Questionnaires were three in counting and labeled as:
1-Closed Ended Questionnaire for students about the Classroom environment and its impact on students’ self-confidence.
2-Open Ended Questionnaire for students about self-confidence.
3-Questionnaire for students’ suggestions for good focus in the classroom that builds self-confidence.
Questionnaire for students:
- An unhygienic classroom environment has a bad impact on the self-confidence of the students.
- Noise in the class increase stress in the mind of the students that leading to decreased self-confidence.
3. Teachers’ boring behavior has a bad impact on students’ self-confidence.
- Creative activity methods of teaching in the class increase self-confidence of the students.
5. Boring attitude of the teacher create laziness in students.
- Stress in the mind of students decreases their self-confidence of students.
- Students want something new in the class daily for concentration and focus.
Questionnaire for Teachers:
- The culture of the school has an impact on the psyche of teachers.
- Physical Resources help teachers with effective classroom management.
- Activities in the class attract the students toward teachers and build self-confidence.
- AV aids help teachers in teaching to maintain the focus of students and build self-confidence.
- Teachers’ behavior has an impact on students’ self-confidence.
After the collection of the data, it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.
What were the findings and conclusion?
1 Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that unhygienic classroom environments have a bad impact on the self-confidence of the students.
- The overall majority (80%) of the respondents agreed that noise in the class increase stress in the mind of the students that leading to decreased self-confidence.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that teachers’ boring behavior has a bad impact on students’ self-confidence.
- The overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that the creative activity methods of teaching in the class increase self-confidence of the students.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that the Boring attitude of the teacher creates laziness in students.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that Stress on the mind of students decreases their self-confidence of students.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that Students want something new in the class daily for concentration and focus.
8. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that the Culture of the school has an impact on the psyche of teachers.
9. Overall majority (78%) of the respondents agreed that Physical Resources help teachers with effective classroom management and building self-confidence in students.
10. Overall majority (85%) of the respondents agreed that Activities in the class attract the students toward teachers.
11. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that AV aids help teachers in teaching to maintain the self-confidence of students.
- The overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that Teachers’ behavior has an impact on students’ self-confidence.
The researcher in this study, from the findings, concluded by the analysis of the following conclusion:
To find out the answers to the research question, of how can I enhance self-confidence among students at the Primary level, a Likert-type questionnaire was designed to collect data from 100 primary school students. The data were analyzed by using arithmetic operations i.e. percentages.
In the overall analysis (82%) of respondents agreed that a good environment in the classroom affects the confidence of students at the primary level. Which (96%) of respondents agreed that effective teaching methods of teachers develop self-confidence in students at the primary level.
- The ungenial environment in the class had a bad impact on the self-confidence of students. On the other hand, a good environment of the classroom develops focus, concentration, critical thinking, problem-solving skill, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence, and honesty in Primary school students. According to the perceptions of Primary school students (in open-ended question), the majority of the respondents (Primary school students) agreed that a good environment in the classroom has a stronger effect on developing concentration, focus, self-confidence, punctuality, problem-solving skill, leadership skill, teamwork, self-confidence, character development, and adaptability.
- Major suggestions as perceived by Primary school students to improve the effectiveness of the good environment of classroom availability of physical facilities in the classroom, teachers to student ratio should be as low as possible
Summary of the Project
University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub-theme. The topic that I selected is “HOW CAN I ENHANCE SELF-CONFIDENCE AMONG STUDENTS AT the PRIMARY LEVEL”. I selected this topic because I had to face problems with confidence and focus in school. it is difficult to create a concentrated environment in the class during teaching.
The sample comprised a total of 100 students and 4 teachers drawn from the Primary school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by a simple random sampling technique.
This study investigated the effects of classroom environment, AV aids, and Activity based teaching methods on the improvement of self-confidence among students at the Primary level. It also investigated the effects of the school environment and management-related differences on students’ academic performance in the concept of measurement when taught using a hygienic environment and an Unhygienic environment in the class.
A separate instrument was used for teachers and students for data collection. The research design was descriptive. The result was finding that the Unhygienic environment in the class has a bad impact on the performance of students. The hygienic environment in the class is helpful for maintaining the concentration and focus of students. Teaching aids and teaching methods also impact students’ performance.
How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
The aim of this study was to investigate How can I enhance self-confidence among students at the primary level. My research in rural areas basic skills. My project participants were the students and teachers of govt model primary school Kiranwali situated in More Eminabad. in rural areas most people do not maintain discipline.
The classroom atmosphere is a very important element in the study because it helps build self-confidence in students. Test onboarding is helpful for building confidence in students.
So I used a different technique to create a Hygienic atmosphere in the class. Students were happy and learn quickly on the base of the hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teachers create a hygienic atmosphere in the class then students have no problem with self-confidence and focus in education. Students respond to the implementation of teaching if they teach in a hygienic atmosphere. I created a hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities. I learn how to improve the student’s concentration and focus during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.
What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added some new things to my knowledge key points are given below.
- It made me a good organizer.
- It made me ready for everything that is thrown their way.
- It enabled me how to create a Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom for building self-confidence in students.
- Test onboarding is helpful for building self-confidence in students.
- It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
- Before these activities, I was not a good organizer. it made me innovative.
- I started finding out new things I did have not to insert. But when I started my project a great change brought in my thinking.
- I am capable to find out new things for building self-confidence in students.
- It made me a good effective teacher and mentor.
- It made me a good role model.
- It made me confident. Teachers‘ self-confidence can help influence others to be better people.
- It made me capable to understand how to create a classroom atmosphere according to the student’s psyches to maintain self-confidence and focus at the primary level.
- It told me how an unhygienic atmosphere effect students’ self-confidence level and focus.
List the works you cited in your project.
Allwood, C. M. (2010a). The realism in children’s metacognitive judgments of their episodic memory performance. In A. Efklides & P. Misailidi (Eds.), Trends and prospects in metacognition research (pp. 149–169). New York: Springer.
Allwood, C. M. (2010b). Eyewitness confidence. In P. A. Granhag (Ed.), Forensic psychology in context (pp. 281–303). Uffculme, Devon: Willan Publishing.
Allwood, C. M., & Granhag, P. A. (1999). Feelings of confidence and the realism of confidence judgments in everyday life. In P. Juslin & H. Montgomery (Eds.), Judgment and decision making: Neo-Brunswikian and process-tracing approaches (pp. 123–146). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.
Allwood, C. M., Granhag, P. A., & Jonsson, A. C. (2006). Child witnesses’ metamemory realism. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47, 461–470.
Allwood, C. M., Innes-Ker, Å., Holmgren, J., & Fredin, G. (2008). Children’s and adults’ realism in their event-recall confidence in response to free recall and focused questions. Psychology, Crime & Law, 14, 529–547.
Ames, C. (1992). Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117–148.
Burchinal, M. R., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Pianta, R., & Howes, C. (2002). Development of academic skills from preschool through second grade: Family and classroom predictors of developmental trajectories. Journal of School Psychology, 40(5), 415–436.
Crosnoe, R., Johnson, M. K., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2004). Intergenerational bonding in school: The behavioral and contextual correlates of student–teacher relationships. Sociology of Education, 77, 60–81.
Dahl, M., Allwood, C. M., Rennemark, M., & Hagberg, B. (2010). The relation between personality and the realism in confidence judgments in older adults. European Journal of Ageing, 7(4), 283–291.
Efklides, A. (2001). Metacognitive experiences in problem solving: Metacognition, motivation, and self-regulation. In A. Efklides, J. Kuhl, & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research (pp. 297–323). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Efklides, A. (2006). Metacognitive experiences: The missing link in the self-regulated learning process. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 287–291.
Efklides, A., & Tsiora, A. (2002). Metacognitive experiences, self-concept, and self-regulation. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 45, 222–236.
Erev, I., Wallsten, T. S., & Budescu, D. V. (1994). Simultaneous over- and underconfidence: The role of error in judgment processes. Psychological Review, 101, 519–527.
Gibson, J. (2008). The effects of the learning environment on the metacognitive beliefs, selfconfidence and use of self-handicapping strategies of sixth grade students. Unpublished Hon. thesis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Griffin, D., & Brenner, L. (2004). Perspectives on probability judgment calibration. In D. J. Koehler & N. Harvey (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of judgment and decision making (pp. 177–199). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Jonsson, A., & Allwood, C. M. (2003). Stability and variability in the realism of confidence judgments over time, content domain, and gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 559–574.
Kleitman, S. (2008). Metacognition in the rationality debate. Self-confidence and its calibration.: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller E.K. Inc., Publishers.
Kleitman, S., & Gibson, J. (2011). Metacognitive beliefs, self-confidence and primary learning environment of sixth grade students. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 728–735.
Kleitman, S., & Moscrop, T. (2010). Self-confidence and academic achievements in primaryschool children: Their relationships and links to parental bonds, intelligence, age, and gender. In A. Efklides & P. Misailidi (Eds.), Trends and prospects in metacognition research (pp. 293–326). New York: Springer.
Kleitman, S., & Stankov, L. (2001). Ecological and person-driven aspects of metacognitive processes in test-taking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 321–341.
Kleitman, S., & Stankov, L. (2007). Self-confidence and metacognitive processes. Learning and Individual Differences, 17(2), 161–173.
Kleitman, S., Mak, K., Young, S., Lau, P., & Livesey, D. (2011). Something about metacognition: Self-confidence factor(s) in school-aged children (Chapter 9). In S. Boag & N. Tiliopoulos (Eds.), Personality and individual differences: Theory, assessment, and application. New York: Nova. Koriat, A., & Goldsmith, M. (1996). Monitoring and control processes in the strategic regulation of memory accuracy. Psychological Review, 103, 490–517.
Koriat, A., Goldsmith, M., Schneider, W., & Nakash-Dura, M. (2001). The credibility of children’s testimony: Can children control the accuracy of their memory reports? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79, 405–437.
Kröner, S., & Biermann, A. (2007). The relationship between confidence and self-concept – Towards a model of response confidence. Intelligence, 35(6), 580–590.
Lau, P. (2009). Predicting achievement and self-confidence: Interpersonal and intrapersonal predictors in school-aged children. Unpublished Hon thesis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Lee, J. (2009). Universals and specifics of math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety across 41 PISA 2003 participating countries. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 355–365.
Mak, K. (2009). Metacognitive regulation in the physical domain: An investigation of school aged children’s movement confidence and its relationship with self-concept and big five personality traits. Unpublished Hon. thesis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Marsh, H. W. (1988). A multifaceted academic self-concept: Its hierarchical structure and its relation to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 366–380.
McClelland, A. G. R., & Bolger, F. (1994). The calibration of subjective probabilities: Theories and models 1980–1994. In G. Wright & P. Ayton (Eds.), Subjective probability (pp. 453–482).
Metacognition: Knowing about knowing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Neitzel, C., & Stright, A. D. (2003).
Mothers’ scaffolding of children’s problem solving: Establishing a foundation of academic self-regulatory competence. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 147–159.
Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1994). Why investigate metacognition? In J. Metcalfe & A. P. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 1–25).
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Patrick, H., Hicks, L., & Ryan, A. M. (1997). Relations of perceived social efficacy and social goal pursuit to self-efficacy for academic work. Journal of Early Adolescence, 17, 109–128.
Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 460–475.
Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7, 351–371.
Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111–139.
Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and achievement behaviours. Educational Psychology Review, 1(3), 173–208.
Stankov, L. (1999). Mining on the “no man’s land” between intelligence and personality. In P. L. Ackerman, P. C. Kyllonen, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Learning and individual differences: Process, trait and content determinants (pp. 315–367).
Washington: DC: American Psychological Association. Stankov, L., & Lee, J. (2008). Confidence and cognitive test performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 961–976.
Stankov, L., Lee, J., Morony, S., Luo, W. S., & Hogan, D. J. (under review). Confidence: challenging the role of self-efficacy and self-concepts in education. Sternberg, R. (1997). Thinking styles.
Cambridge, MA: University Press. Thomas, C. R., & Gadbois, S. A. (2007). Academic self-handicapping: The role of self-concept clarity and students’ learning strategies. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 101–119.
Whitley, R. L. (1999). Those “dumb jocks” are at it again: A comparison of the educational performances of athletes and nonathletes in North Carolina high schools from 1993 through 1996. The High School Journal, 82, 223–233.
Young, S. (2009). Examining the relationships between children’s environments, self-concept, achievement and self-confidence. Unpublished Hon. thesis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia