AIOU Solved Assignments Cost Accounting 444 Autumn 2022
AIOU Solved Assignments Cost Accounting 444 Autumn 2022

Discuss in detail classical and modern philosophies in relation to education


Discuss in detail classical and modern philosophies in relation to education.


in the philosophy of education, there are two types of classical and modern philosophies. These two are as follows:

  • Idealism
  • Realism

These two are explained below:


Idealism is a philosophical approach that has as its central belief that ideas are only based on true reality. In a search for truth, it is focused on conscious reasoning in the mind. Plato is the father of idealism, who exposed his views in his famous book about 400 years BC. He believed that there are two worlds:

  • The first is the spiritual or mental world, which is eternal.
  • The second is the world of appearance, which is external


Idealists have high expectations of the teacher. It is believed that students should be taught how to think in school. The teacher passes on knowledge to the students, and the students gain and adapt the knowledge and perform different actions. Idealists think the lecture is the most important method to deliver knowledge to students.

Types of Idealism:

There are three types of idealism. Which are as follows:

  • Self-realization
  • Subjective idealism
  • Phenomenalism

 Self-realization according to idealists the aim of education is self-realization. This is the individualist aim of education emphasized by the idealist. It requires the development of willpower.

Subjective Idealism It is termed subjective since it holds that all objects of knowledge are subjective in as much that they depend upon the mind. It is equivalent to a conceptual theory since it also holds the universe. Anything which cannot be the subject of mind cannot exist.

Phenomenalism This particular form of idealism was propounded by Kant the German philosopher. Its first discovery concerned the limits of man’s knowledge, and it led him to the conclusion that the only knowledge that is possible to man is knowledge of the phenomenon. An object is just as it appears to be its phenomenal appearance. There is direct knowledge of the phenomenal object, and this knowledge depends upon the construction of the mind.


“Realism means a belief or theory which looks upon the world as it seems to us to be a mere phenomenon”.

Realism is associated with the study of the world we live in. It is a philosophy away from the world of ideas or spiritual thinking. In Realism the word ‘real’ denotes actual or the existing thing around us. It indicates those things or events which exist in the world in its own right. It opposes the thing or event which is imaginary. This philosophy is also known as objectivism.

Realism and Aims of Education:

Realism explains the aims of education from different perspectives. Such as

Preparation for a Happy and Successful Life: The first and most important aim of realistic education is to prepare learners for led a happy and successful life. Following are activities for achieving happiness in life:

  • Social activities
  • Leisure activities
  • Religious activities
  • Vocational activities
  • Activities of mental health

Preparation for Practical Life: Realism is usually concerned with preparing students for the real and practical life of the material world which can be gained through senses.

Training of Senses: Realism believes that the fullest development of personality can be possible through proper training of senses. The learners will not have proper knowledge about the material world unless their senses are trained and improved properly.

Developing Physical and Mental Powers: The physical and mental powers are required for developing intelligence, discrimination, and judgments by which learners will be able to face the different challenges of life.

Developing Vocational Efficiency: Realism is in favor of developing vocational efficiencies among learners so that they can prepare themselves for fulfilling their livelihood demands.

Types of Realism

The main types of realism are the following:

  1. Naive realism. This is the common sense according to which objects are independent of mind whether they are known or not. Objects have their own qualities. Knowledge does not affect the object.
  2. Representationism. This theory is the product of Locke’s mind. It states that the object’s existence is independent of knowledge but metaphysical thought depends upon the mind. Primary, objective, individual and secondary qualities in the object.
  3. Neo-Realism. In this theory, it is believed that the total object is not the subject of knowledge but its aspects are, and they are independent of knowledge. The qualities of the object are it’s own and knowledge does not affect them. Knowledge of the aspects of an object is direct while logical entities are universal.

Distinguish among classical or a priori probability

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