Developing Critical Thinking Through Patience Among 8th Grade Students
- Sub Theme
- The overall background of the participants of the project
- Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
- What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
- What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
- What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from the literature.
- What did you want to achieve in this research project?
- Who were the participants in your project?
- How did you try to solve the problem?
- What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
- What were the findings and conclusion?
- Summary of the Project
- How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
- What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
- List the works you cited in your project.
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Developing Critical Thinking Through Patience Among 8th Grade Students
Developing Scientific Attitude Among Children
The overall background of the participants of the project
This action research was conducted in School Name…..
In general the structure of school was huge and lovely. The school had lovely playground and parking. Classes are better in condition. The environment of school was great, better for learning and secure for children.
The participants of study were elementary (8th) grade children and their teachers who were enrolled in School Name…... I selected elementary (8th) grade children and their teachers which are considered in total 32 members.
Socio Economic Status:
Socioeconomic status is the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and control. Most of peoples from this area are Govt. employee but some of them are shopkeeper or work in a private offices. Most of parents do not afford children education due to their family expenses and their low income but some parents support their children at higher level in well reputed universities. But due to the lack of higher educational institute and low income of their parents, more than 60% children stop their education after matriculation. Overall the financial status of this area is not good.
Occupation & Earning Trend:
Parents with Govt. jobs and small businessman are in a better condition to help and support their children educationally, mentally and profoundly. However, Parents with low income because of expenses and low salaries issues can’t give satisfactory to up level their children education. The control of the Parents in this research from this area is normal. A part of the Parents are not monetarily so good. The children who Parents with government jobs are more verified and their family finds a sense of contentment moderately contrasted with the individuals who work in private association. They are consistently in dissatisfaction. Due to low earning trend of this area, the children face a great deal of difficulties both at home and school, which block them from taking an interest completely in classroom exercises. In present some parents drop their children at different shop for learning work and for earning but today due to free education in Pakistan more than 80% children go to school till then matriculation.
In 2019, City Name’s literacy rate of 66% for females was noticeably lower than the 79% for males.
Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
I am a trainee teacher by Aiou and I selected school Name for my research project. As action research was totally based on local level. I choose School Name for my action research I choose my research topic “Developing critical thinking through patience among 8th grade student” critical thinking ability can be improved through a good learning process and patience. For that, the learning process should be packaged in such a way that students are actively involved in the classroom. The effort to obtain these results is to improve the quality of learning through the use of good teaching materials and techniques like patience. Learning to teach is a process that not only get information from lecturers but many activities and actions that should be done, in achieving better learning outcomes for students. For example from the provision of tasks that stimulate students to think critically, provided with methods and learning models in learning. The learning process is essentially a teaching-learning process that emphasizes the importance of learning through experience processes to gain experience. This approach has a very important role in determining the success or failure of the desired study. Critical thinking is a fundamental ability developed by group work in learning because today the ability to think critically is very important in everyday life. A lot of phenomena in everyday life are needed to be criticized, especially by students as the younger generation of the nation. For that, it needs to be trained by lecturers in the learning process through the development of teaching materials that support the achievement of improving students’ critical thinking skills in lectures and applied in the community. I selected this topic and sub theme topic to point out and investigate that critical thinking development among students through patience is ignored in our school system, teachers are not paying practical attention to address this issue , Although it is an important and an integral part of the learning process. Critical thinking is an essential part of any student-centered classroom.
Science motivate students toward learning and toward developing curiosity about the world in which they live. Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence. Critical thinking has growing significance in contemporary world, and received increased attention in recent educational reforms around the world. Critical thinking is the ability to produce work that is both novel (i.e., original, unexpected) and appropriate (i.e., useful, adaptive concerning task constraints)”. In education field, critical thinking is believed to be a combination of abilities, skills, motivation, attitudes and other factors. Among all these attributes, critical thinking is always considered as central to critical thinking development. From the cognitive approach, leading scholars of critical thinking consider divergent thinking as the essence of critical thinking. Critical thinking is an elusive concept and can be interpreted in a variety of different ways.
Critical thinking is the ability to argue in an organized way. Critical thinking is the ability to systematically evaluate the weight of personal opinions and opinions of others. Furthermore, critical thinking is the activity of analyzing ideas or ideas in a more specific direction, distinguish it sharply, choose, identify, study and develop it to a more perfect. Someone becomes more weighted in dealing with a problem. Purpose of critical thinking is to test an opinion or idea, including in this process is to consider or thought based on the opinion proposed. The purpose of critical thinking is to judge a thought, interpret values and even evaluate the implementation or practice of such thoughts and values. Even critical thinking includes considering activity based on a known opinion. Aim of critical thinking is to achieve a deep understanding.
What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
After choosing this theme, I discussed this topic with my teachers, friends and supervisor.
Discussion with Supervisor:
My supervisor pointed out that Students’ critical thinking skills which are different from one another require a learning condition involving a learning experience, so that the potential of critical thinking can develop. Critical thinking can be incorporated into learning by teachers, so teachers should be able to carry out the mandate of developing students’ critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are considered to be very important for students. In order to face the challenges of modern life which is dynamic and full of uncertainty, it is necessary to develop critical thinking skills in learning. In fact, these critical thinking skills are the foundation of science. Thus, critical thinking skills need to be trained through learning, especially in science learning.
Discussion with Teacher:
My teacher told me that In addition to inquiry, to train critical thinking skills, mind map-assisted learning needs to be developed. In science learning, the mind map has been widely recommended and used in various ways to help teachers and students develop organized knowledge bases on particular topics at the intermediate level. Mind maps can be integrated with other techniques that have the constructivist approach philosophy. This technique relies on images and the relationship with one another through the use of pictures, words, numbers, logic, and color to become a unique way. Mind map is a technique that stimulates the left brain and the right brain and makes visible the process of thinking, gives the big picture and details of something at the same time, makes it easy to manage and understand the information effectively and systematically, improves the ability to think critically and innovatively, and improves retention.
Discussion with Friends:
One of my friend pointed about this subtheme that Male students had significantly higher critical thinking skills than female students. This difference is because men are more interested in science, engineering, and technology compared with women. Another opinion stated that men tended to show more dominance of the area of the brain associated with cognition of semantics and decision-making, while women showed more dominance in language processing and social perception. Furthermore, when they think divergently, the area associated with declarative memory tends to actively work in men. It was also reported that there was no difference in concept understanding between men and women. The difference lies in the problem-solving ability. Males have a better problem-solving ability than females. Problem solving is closely related to critical thinking skills.
I concluded that Critical thinking is no longer seen as an optional extra; it is becoming an important concern of policy makers and economists. Indeed, the dramatic rise in the number of efforts to measure and monitor the position and lives of children’ in recent years.
What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
Critical thinking belong to productive skill rather than perceptive one. It produces a message to communicate. Spratt, Paleness, and Williams (2020) state that Critical thinking learning belong to productive skills. She said that learning and Science concept, particularly, involve producing content rather than receiving it. The subjective aspects include things such as how the child is feeling about their life and how happy they are. The objective aspects include factors that affect the child’s feelings, for example, health, housing, poverty, social capital and education. Despite a fairly extensive literature, comparisons between countries and communities are difficult as ‘the field of social child indication is fragmented and lacking a unifying taxonomy’. Many different indicators have been identified. It means that Critical thinking learning will produce an output as an indicator that students have learned both those skills. It is clearly that the output of learning skill can be oral conversation or drama. Meanwhile, the output of learning skill can be written stories, letters, or other text types. Another linguist, Hyland (2019), explains that Critical thinking are a way to share personal meanings. The people construct their own views on topic.
Through being good role models for our children and developing positive thinking and behavior patterns in them we can help improve our critical thinking, as well as teach them lifelong skills to maintain this into their adult life. They will share their views on a topic to each other then. A person’s views may be different from other people’s views. It depends on their belief. Therefore, when constructing their views (ideas), the people have to make it understandable and acceptable. Brown (2019) illustrates that Science concept are like swimming. When people want to be able to swim, they must have like an instructor to show them basic ways or tricks to swim, although the instructor is only their parents or their friends (not professional Parents). After they get the basic ways to swim, they will develop based on their own style. The more chance they get to swim, the more perfect they will be. Science concept are the last output after students learn separate acts continuously. Wallace (2019) states that Science concept are the final product after students learn several stages of Science concept separately before. Those stages are note-taking, identifying a central idea, outlining, drafting, and editing. It means that Science concept are a complex skill. It covers many sub skills that have to be passed before producing a good piece of Science concept.
Science concept seem so complicated with its sub skills, but it is actually can be learn with fun. Wajnryb (2020) is credited with helping to develop a new way of Critical thinking known as doctorless. Dictogloss is a relatively recent procedure in content teaching. Those skills are related to each other. In this case, I am going to focus on Science concept activities. Science concept are a content skill that is very important. Science concept are among the most important skills that foreign content students need to develop. It is the last stage in science concept content after listening, learning, and listening. In other Science concept, I can say that Science concept are an indicator whether students have gained all skills before or have not. Before the students have to science concept, they should be able to listen, to speak, and to read.
Science concept activities differs from other skills like learning and listening. Brown (2019) states that trends in teaching Science concept of ESL and other foreign contents are integrated with teaching other skills, particularly listening and learning. Wajnryb recommends that learners should listen to the Critical thinking twice and that both readings should be, as far as possible, identical. The text is read at natural speed with short pauses between each sentence. Students are told not to science concept anything the first time, ‘but allow the Science concept to wash over them’ (2020). This is to allow students to get an overall feel for the passage. On the second listening students should take down notes. At this stage the teacher should suggest that learners focus on noticing and recording key content or information.
Critical thinking are an integrative strategy that was originally used for second content learners. The purpose of Critical thinking is to improve students’ knowledge of text structure and grammar & learning within an authentic context (Van Patten, Inclezan, Salazar, & Farley, 2020). As research indicates, effective Science concept instruction focuses on grammar & learning and text structure within context of use (Bromley, 2019). In this instructional strategy, students listen to a model of motivation structure and deconstruct it collaboratively before it is recreated. The collaborative nature of Critical thinking allows all learners, but especially second content learners and striving readers, to examine an exemplary narrative passage and discover how the author created it. When students are explicitly instructed in the study of genres and their textual differences, the quality of their Science concept improves (Calkins, 2019).
What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from literature.
Scientific concepts can be described as systematic mental representations of the natural world, and they have a central place and role in science. In contrast, ambiguity is possible because of features that are inherent in the concepts themselves.
Critical thinking is a skill that lets you consider things from a fresh perspective and different angles. It’s an inventive thought process that results in surprising conclusions and new ways of doing things. Critical thinking can be aided by brainstorming or lateral thinking to generate ideas.
Teamwork or group work is the collaborative effort of a group to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way. This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team, which is a group of interdependent individuals who work together towards a common goal.
Logical reasoning is a form of thinking in which premises and relations between premises are used in a rigorous manner to infer conclusions that are entailed (or implied) by the premises and the relations. Different forms of logical reasoning are recognized in the philosophy of science and artificial intelligence.
Education is what pushes us to achieve our goals, feel more fulfilled, and improve our overall quality of life. Understanding and developing your Education can help you to take control of many other aspects of your life.
What did you want to achieve in this research project?
Objective/purpose of the study:
The purpose of this action research will be how to develop critical thinking in students through patience by scientific attitude among children of the elementary level at School Name…….
Objectives of this research are:
- To carry out the enhancing interest of elementary-level students in critical thinking by developing a scientific attitude.
- To explore the use of Science concepts on students.
- To clarify the concept of critical thinking on children.
- To investigate the role of teachers in developing critical thinking.
This study aims to make an action plan for group discussion with patience in critical thinking grooming and enhancing interest of elementary level students in critical thinking by developing scientific attitude in School Name……. Specifically it seeks to answer the following questions:
- How we develop the ability for critical thinking techniques that effects on children’s learning to develop scientific attitude?
- How Science concept effect student’s critical thinking?
- What is teacher role in critical thinking skills?
Who were the participants in your project?
The targeted population was students enrolled in 8th class of School Name….. However, in this interview, thirty-two (32) students, taking a related course, were selected in a School Name as a sample while considering the research control and validity of this study. This sample included students of the two major medium (English Medium and Urdu Medium). These participants might generally represent the students in 8th class. The Critical thinking were developed on the basis of a series of research regarding Scientific attitude identification and improvement for 8th class students. This curriculum purported to Developing critical thinking through patience among 8th-grade students.
How did you try to solve the problem?
Method of the study:
The procedure of this research was involved on an activity research to discover and tackle the issue. The social wonder under investigation was the Developing critical thinking through patience among 8th grade student. Survey, interviews, field notes and perceptions were utilized to gather the information expected to give the data knowledge important to respond to the research questions.
The entire group from which a sample is chosen is known as the population and we choose the students of School Name….. It was quite convenient for me, being a resident of City Name to accumulate quality data from chosen Area. Sample is smaller representation of large data. Generally, it consists of all the observation that represents the whole population. The number of observation included in a sample is called size of sample. The students of School Name and their Parents were selected for this class based action research.
An action research is considered ethical if research design, interpretation and practical development produced by it have been negotiated with all parties directly concerned with the situation under research. Permission to conduct the study was first sought from the principal and Area governing body. Permission was sought from Area head. Permission was granted by the Education Department for this study to take place at the Area where I was teaching. The rights of the participants were spelled out clearly i.e. they could refuse to be audio recorded and they could demand to see any notes or recordings.
Interview was used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. Moreover, it is snappiest, most affordable, private method for social affair data from respondents. The data was accumulated through efficient research gadget. So in such sort inspects, it is indispensable during progress of estimation gadget for quality data to recollect all points of view. Quantitative system was used to get critical and cautious information. Information was assembled through survey including simply close completed request in regard to investigate goals. The close by completed overview was made for data gathering.
What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
An interview is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions asked verbally for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. However, a problem with interview is that respondents may lie due to social desirability. Most people want to present a positive image of them and so may lie or bend the truth to look good. Although, interviews have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as written or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data.
Therefore, research used interview method to collect students’ and teachers’ responses. Designing of the interview involved many steps: First step was getting acquainted with the subject, making a literature review, deciding on objectives, formulating a hypothesis, and defining the main information needed to test the hypothesis. After that it was determined how the information defined in step one should be analyzed. The plan of analysis contained the measures of association and the statistical tests that intended to use. In addition, the researcher designed dummy tables with the information of interest. The plan of analysis helped me to determine which type of results this study wanted to obtain. From the plan of analysis, made a list of the information needed to collect from participants. In this step the researcher determined the type and format of variables needed and started designing different parts of the interview questions using this list of needed information. Insuring a smooth flow from one topic to the next one to complete interview. After completion, it was verified that each question answers to any of the objectives and all of my objectives are covered by the questions asked, also deleted questions that were not directly related to my objectives. Each question was made clear, unambiguous, simple and short.
What were the findings and conclusion?
I used an interview to get students’ responses towards the use for the improvement of critical thinking through patience by improving scientific attitude. Total students in this interview were 32. In this interview researcher used following statements to get data according to research objectives.
|Statements||Option||Students’ Science concept|
|Critical thinking motivate them in science concept.||Strongly Agree||5||15.62%|
|Critical thinking helping them to solve problem in different knowledge.||Strongly Agree||8||25%|
|Critical thinking making them able to solve problem in science concepts.||Strongly Agree||7||21.88%|
|The use of Critical thinking is understandable.||Strongly Agree||2||6.25%|
|Can scientific attitude effect on student’s critical thinking.||Strongly Agree||6||18.75%|
|Can you use the science concept activities in your study?||Strongly Agree||2||6.25%|
|Children critical thinking effects the life of student.||Strongly Agree||2||6.25%|
The first statement, “Critical thinking motivate them in science concept”. This statement was used to know whether the Critical thinking improved students’ Science concept. There were 32 respondents who gave their opinion. It showed that 15.62 % of the students were very motivated to science concept using Critical thinking. It showed that 68.75% of the students were motivated to science concept using Critical thinking. The second statement is “Critical thinking helping them to science concept”. So, about 25 % of the students were really helped by the use of Critical thinking to help them in Science concept. It showed that 75 % of the students were helped by Critical thinking to solve problem in science concepts. The third statement shows that there were 21.88 % of the students who thought that they were able to science concept by using the Critical thinking. There were 71.88 % of the students could learning through motivation. The next statement concluded that 6.25 % of the students could clearly understand with the steps used in Critical thinking. So, 78.12 % of the students agreed that the steps in Critical thinking were understandable for them. The next statement shows that more than 80 % of the students could get the Science concept from online lesson that would be used as the basic for them to develop and learning the lesson. The sixth statement will show there were still 4 students who were not able to develop their Science concept. The last statement showed so, there were more than 70 % of the students agreed that steps in critical thinking were fun and critical thinking is effective their life issues and education out come.
From the result above, it can be seen that more than 50 % of the students responded that Critical thinking motivated them in Science concept. The use of Critical thinking was effective to motivate the students, helping them in science. After learned using Critical thinking, more than 70 % of the students were able to develop lesson in science concepts. It also shows that Critical thinking are understandable and fun for them. They could follow the steps in Critical thinking periods. More than 50 % of the students were able to get the key success when they used Critical thinking. Then, they were able to develop the key Science concept into a lesson. Critical thinking also helped the students to understand the generic structure of texts. The result of this research revealed the improvements contributed by the implementation of the Critical thinking periods in the teaching and learning process of Science in grade 7th of School Name…. First, Critical thinking could improve students’ Science concept. It was able to engage the students’ attention and interests during the teaching and learning process of Science concept. Besides, Critical thinking could provide the students with illustrations and ideas in their minds. Second, the improvement could also be seen in the teaching and learning process. Critical thinking could be combined with other media such as pictures or video that could create various fun learning Science so it decreased students’ boredom during their learning process in the classroom. The students became more confident to science concept and active in the classroom. Third, since the students were motivated and the Science class ran well, the students’ Scientific attitudes were also improved.
Summary of the Project
This action research was conducted in School Name….. The participants of study were elementary (8th) grade children and their teachers who were enrolled in School Name….. I selected elementary (8th) grade children and their teachers which were considered in total 32 members.
Objective of this research are:
- To carry out the enhancing interest of elementary level students in critical thinking by Developing scientific attitude.
- To explore the use of Science concept on students.
- To clarify the concept of critical thinking on children.
- To investigate the role of teacher in developing critical thinking.
An interview was used to collect the data needed to provide the information insight necessary to answer the research questions. In this technique a well establish interview was designed according to requirement and relevancy of researcher being conducted. The interview was prepared to attain study objectives.
The first statement, “Critical thinking motivate them in science concept”. This statement was used to know whether the Critical thinking improved students’ Science concept to science concept. There were 32 respondents who gave their opinion. It showed that 15.62 % of the students were very motivated to science concept using Critical thinking. It showed that 68.75% of the students were motivated to science concept using Critical thinking. The second statement is “Critical thinking helping them to science concept”. So, about 25 % of the students were really helped by the use of Critical thinking to help them in Science concept. It showed that 75 % of the students were helped by Critical thinking to solve problem in science concepts. The third statement shows that there were 21.88 % of the students who thought that they were able to science concept by using the Critical thinking. There were 71.88 % of the students could learning through motivation.
It was able to engage the students’ attention and interests during the teaching and learning process of Science concept. Besides, Critical thinking could provide the students with illustrations and ideas in their minds. Second, the improvement could also be seen in the teaching and learning process. Critical thinking could be combined with other media such as pictures or video that could create various fun learning Science concept so it decreased students’ boredom during their learning process in the classroom. The students became more confident to science concept and active in the classroom Science concept. Third, since the students were motivated and the Science concept class ran well, the students’ Scientific attitude were also improved.
How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
I am feeling very satisfied and glad after my research. It was quite interesting and Conflict management experience. Now I am confident after this research. Now I am able to do these all sorts of such tasks.im feeling myself as confident, glad and learnt person. I learnt a lot of new things which I never learnt in my previous life. For example when I talked with senior Teachers and expert people I learnt a lot of skills of writing. When i taught the children then me counsel dictionary and great writers, businessmen and novels .These all things increased my Conflict management also showed them video lesson of some expert and critical writers to teach them. It also helped me to learn new things. This practice also improved my writing skills too.
I also learnt how to write effectively and accurately I have improved my English grimmer. My work has been improved. I learnt new methods of improving writing. I learnt how to write stories in appropriate way. Overall it helped me to develop new writing skills, new way of teaching writing skills. So I am glad to say that it was unforgettable experience of my life. First of all most of us numb the uncomfortable emotions, but unknowingly when we do this research we can also end up numbing our other emotions like joy, peace, happiness, and pleasure. We can’t fully have one without the other.
The first step is always awareness, because once we have awareness we can start to do something about it. Awareness alone won’t help us stop using Conflict management. Awareness after the fact is what I’m talking about here. Starting anything new and trying to create a habit out of it takes work and time. This is one of the reasons I love researching and attending classes as it’s basically a scheduled time in the day, where I have no other distractions, to just be in my routine and notice how I’m feeling. That being said I rarely make it to a class once a week these days, so I do have to find simple and quick ways to connect.
What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
It added a lot of new skills to my teaching. It improved my way of teaching. For example, when I talked with senior Teachers and expert people I learned a lot of skills of Science concepts.
In this modern, digital age, Teachers need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way Teachers teach. Likewise, administrators are changing and updating expectations and learning standards. Being able to adapt is a skill that every modern teacher must have. If it’s being able to adapt to the way students learn, the behavior their classroom exhibits, or their lesson plans, it is a definitely a trait that is a must-have.
This is likely the single most important skill. Kids these days are stubborn, and many lack the inherent respect for authority that we were taught at a young age. Spending a single day in a room full of raucous teenagers is enough to send any human being to the Looney bin, which is why every good teacher needs patience in order to find a way to work with his students and earn their respect.
Different kids learn in different ways, and some lessons need unique teaching tools. Good Teachers know how to adapt their lesson plan to their students, so that all the kids learn optimally. This trait can take some experience and practice in a classroom setting, so give it time.
Whether you teach high Area chemistry or kindergarten, nothing is a more effective tool than using your imagination to create new and motivation ways for your students to learn. You may be inspired by the work of another teacher, mentor or a TV commercial – it doesn’t matter. All that matters is that you take the initiative to find new ways for your kids to learn the material.
Teachers could have a hard time without a wide variety of support staff around them. If you feel alone, your Area principal, administrative staff, parent-teacher committee, and more are often available to provide you help. By working as a team, you may have an easier time increasing your students’ ability to learn and have fun.
Sometimes to get the big reward, you may need to take a risk. Being a teacher is about finding a way to get kids to learn, and sometimes these new learning methods can be risky. Stick to it and you’ll soon find that others are following your teaching example.
List the works you cited in your project.
- Atwater, M. M., & Alick, B. (1990). Cognitive development and critical thinking of Afro-American students in chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(2), 157-172.
- Bédard, J., & Chi, M. T. H. (1992). Expertise. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1(4), 135-139.
- Bowman, C. R. (2012). Relationship Between Study Habits and Student Attitudes Towards Science and Technology. (Ph.D. Doctoral Dissertation), Drexel University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle. net/1860/3836
- Cavas, B. (2010). A Study on Pre-Service Science, Class and Mathematics Teachers’ Learning Styles in Turkey. Science Education International, 21(1), 47-61.
- Kokkelenberg, E. C., & Sinha, E. (2010). Who succeeds in STEM studies? An analysis of Binghamton University undergraduate students. Economics of Education Review, 29(6), 935-946.
- Leonard, W. J., Gerace, W. J., & Dufresne, R. J. (1999). Concept-Based Science concept: Making Concepts the Language of Physics. Technical Report. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED468197
- Overton, T. L., & Potter, N. M. (2011). Investigating students’ success in solving and attitudes towards context-rich open-ended problems in chemistry. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 12(3), 294-302
- Taber, K. S. (2010). Challenging gifted learners: general principles for science educators; and exemplification in the context of teaching chemistry. Science Education International, 21(1), 5-30.Staib, S. (2003). Teaching and measuring critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 42 (11), 498- 508.
- Stentoft, D. (2017). From saying to doing interdisciplinary learning: Is problem-based learning the answer? Active Learning in Higher Education, 18 (1), 51-61.
- Sungur, S., & Tekkaya C. (2006). Effects of problem-based learning and traditional instruction on self-regulated learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 99 (5), 307-320.
- Tarhan, L., & Ayyildiz, Y. (2015). The views of undergraduates about problem-based learning applications in biochemistry course. Journal of Biological Education, 49 (2), 116-126.
- Utami, B., Saputro, S., Ashadi, Masykuri, M., & Widoretno,
- (2017). Critical thinking skills profile of high School students in learning chemistry. International Journal of Science and Applied Science: Conference Series, 1 (2), 124-130.
- Whitten D., & Brahmasrene, T. (2011). Predictors of critical thinking skills of incoming business students. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15 (1), 1-13.
- Wilder, S. (2015). Impact of problem-based learning on academic achievement in high school: a systematic Educational Review, 67 (4), 414-435.