Compare Secondary And Higher Education of India and Pakistan
Compare Secondary And Higher Education of India and Pakistan in your opinion which measures should take to improve the quality of teaching and learning at the secondary level of education in Pakistan?
Education plays a pivotal role in the creation of skills and human capital which certainly leads to higher economic growth
Secondary & Higher Education Pakistan
In our country, education is recognized as a fundamental right. Pakistan is, therefore, cognizant of the fact that the achievement of Universal Primary Enrolment will go a long way forward to improve the overall education and literacy level. After independence in 1947, affords were made to provide a definite direction to education in Pakistan. Quaid-i- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah laid down a set of aims that provided guidance to all education. The government of Pakistan is hence committed to improving both the quality and the coverage of education through effective policy interventions and expenditure allocations.
Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. After the end of each of the school years, students are required to pass a national examination administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (or BISE).
Upon completion of grade 9, students are expected to take a standardized test in each of the first parts of their academic subjects. They again give these tests of the second parts of the same courses at the end of grade 10. Upon successful completion of these examinations, they are awarded a Secondary School Certificate (or SSC). This is locally termed as ‘matriculation certificate’ or ‘matric’ for short. The curriculum usually includes a combination of eight courses including electives (such as Biology, Chemistry, Computing, and Physics) as well as compulsory subjects (such as Mathematics, English, Urdu, Islamic studies, and Pakistan Studies).
Primary and secondary education in Pakistan can be divided into five stages:
- primary education (Grades 1-5)
- middle stage education (Grades 6-8);
- matriculation or secondary education (Grades 9-10)
- intermediate or higher secondary education (Grades 11-12)
Secondary and higher education in India:
Secondary education begins in grade 9 and lasts until grade 12. The secondary stage is broken into two, two-year cycles generally referred to as General/Lower Secondary School, or ‘Standard X’, and Upper/Senior Secondary School, or ‘Standard XII’. Education continues to be free at government schools, although private education is more common at the secondary level. Public examinations are held at the end of both cycles and grant access to grade 11 and university level study respectively. The general curriculum for a lower secondary school in India consists of three languages (including the regional language, an elective, and English language), Mathematics, Science and Technology, Social Sciences, Work/Pre-Vocational Education, Art, and Physical Education. Secondary schools are affiliated with Central or State boards that administer the Secondary School Certificate at the end of grade 10.
At the lower secondary level (grades 9 and 10), the gross enrollment rate (GER) is 52 %, while at the senior secondary level (grades 11 and 12) it is just 28%, for a combined GER of 40 % (2005). In absolute terms, total secondary enrollment (lower and senior secondary) in 2004/05 was 37.1 Million students, with 65% (24.3 million) in lower secondary and 35% (12.7 million) in senior
Improvement of teaching and learning in Pakistan at secondary level:
No doubt the government tries to improve the quality of education in Pakistan but the quality of teaching and learning in Pakistan is very poor and totally failed to improve the quality of teaching and learning in Pakistan we have to:
- provide the learning resources
- provide quality training to the teachers
- implemented some policies related to the education
- provide free education at the secondary level so that the poor people can also gain the secondary level education
- by more funding in education
- give facility to teacher
- make awareness about study