Analysis Of Early Childhood Education Kit Developing Basic Skills
- Sub Theme
- The overall background of the participants of the project
- Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
- What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
- What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
- What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from the literature.
- What did you want to achieve in this research project?
- Who were the participants in your project?
- How did you try to solve the problem?
- What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
- What were the findings and conclusion?
- Summary of the Project
- How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
- What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
- List the works you cited in your project.
Read More Thesis: Click Here
AIOU Solved Assignments: Click Here
Analysis Of Early Childhood Education Kit Developing Basic Skills
Developing Basic Skills
Name of the School (Govt Model Primary School Kiranwali)
GMPS KIRANWALI is situated at main Eminabad Road. There are 8 teachers and 300 student enrolled in the school. School building is looking very good. There are more than 6 classrooms and staff rooms. Playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity and other basic facilities are available for the students.
This action research project titled “Analysis Of Early Childhood Education Kit” at GMPS Kiranwali.
Demographic details of participants: For the present research 50 participants are selected from two class form the School, their ages are between 6-8years. Among 50 students, there are 25 girls and 25 boys thus they make the total of 50 students as a sample for the present research.
Socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status is not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions are not good. Such families don’t have enough means to manage the expenses of their children study. The participants belong to middle class families who don’t have rich sources for leaning. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.
Location of the school: The present research is conducted in a Government school “GMPS Kiranwali” which is situated in the district of Gujranwala.
The school has great discipline and is very organized in teaching curriculum of Gujranwala test board. The school also shows great 80-90% annual result every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.
Occupation / Profession and earning trends:
That’s was rural area mostly people are attached with agriculture were 25% parents of the students attached with agriculture, 5% in teaching profession .2 % people were working in offices and well educated jobs and remaining were laborers.
I notice that the literacy rate of the village it was not so bad. Literacy rate 35 percent but it was good other than around the villages. Parents meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of village. Almost 20% parents were well educated and other parents were illiterate.
Special Traits of Community:
The community where the school was situated have good hobbies like gardening, plantation, and playing cricket, football. Students participate in games and then go to high level. Private school were present in this village. People respect to the teachers.
Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
Reason behind the selection of the topic: The aim of this study was to investigate the analysis of early childhood education kit at primary level. Although, the present topic has been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all the students at different level especially at primary level in their academic careers. This study is to gain awareness about early childhood education kit and about the performance of students “. “The This research provide insight to determine the effectiveness use of early childhood education kit in schools. “.“ This study will help the school environment in improving their Classroom environment Strategies and activities which ultimately enhance the self confidence among students and increase the achievement level of the students as well.
I have selected the above topic because now a day it is a common problem of all. Mostly teacher use traditional methods for teaching to students and do not use early childhood education kit. Students have lack of interest during the period. That’s why students cannot perform well in the class. Students have lack of interest in class on the base of following reasons. I selected the above topic so this research identifies the solution of this problem. These reasons are discussed one by one in detail.
Traditional Method of Teaching:
Mostly teachers used traditional method of teaching during the period. They just take the books from students and read the lesson. They ask the students to learn and tell me about it. They do not explain the lesson and clear concepts with the help of activities. So students do not show interest in the class during the period.
Teachers gave more homework to students for home without clearing the concepts. Students fell stress on their minds. On the base of that stress they cannot perform well.
Firstly, teachers taught the students through traditional method. Then they ask the students if they not learn then they will be punished. In this way students demotivate and cannot perform well.
Lack of Activities:
Teachers do not used activities during the period in the class. Because they think in this way they were wasting time. Students do not show interest in the class. That’s why their performance remain low in the class.
Lack of Teaching Aids:
Teachers do not used teaching aids during the period in the class to teach the students. They used just text book in the class and teach the students. Hats why students not show interest in the class.
Poor Performance by Students in Examination:
Students despite studying whole year in a class still remain unable to pass the final exams. They do not perform best o their ability and thus fail the exams due to lack of interest in the class.
Examinations A Benchmark of Success and Failure:
The provision of quality education is the basic right of every human being from its society. To meet this goal, every country is taking key initiative and focusing on the adaptation and integration of the latest technologies in teaching and learning group activities both for the improvement of teachers’ efficiency and effectiveness and classroom management.
Effective education refers to the degree to which schools are successful in accomplishing their educational objectives. School facilities and classroom management plays an important role to provide standard education. In the case of student admission in average school, the result of the student will also average. If the case of student attending classes in the effective school but the teacher is ineffective then the results decrease below average. Effective teaching cannot perform in poor managed environment. Better results demand the facilities, strategies and management of classroom in the positive context. For all these workings, the teacher should be experienced and creative mind and able to manage teaching learning area in the attractive sense.
Anxiety about school or grades can be another deeper issue leading to lack of interest in the classroom. Students who are overwhelmed or stressed by a subject may simply check out, leading to dropping grades and confidence.
Mismatched Learning Style:
Different students have different learning styles. Some learn best by seeing, some by hearing, and others by doing. If your child’s teacher emphasizes a learning style that doesn’t match with how your child learns, this can result in a lack of interest and understanding.
Lack of motivation
In some cases, your child’s confidence problem may actually be a motivation problem. This lack of motivation can lead to a number issues in the classroom—including disinterest in the material.
Doesn’t understand the material:
What might look like a lack of confidence could actually be a lack of understanding the material. This lack of understanding can lead to students to stop paying attention, and consequently falling further behind.
What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is more than preparation for primary school. It aims at the holistic development of a child’s social, emotional, cognitive and physical needs in order to build a solid and broad foundation for lifelong learning and wellbeing. To maximize student academic performance, the teachers have to use early childhood kit in the class to create hygienic environment in the class that enables the students to build confidence in their personalities. This strategy has great impacts on the outcomes of teaching learning process.
When I discuss the matter of confidence with my colleague and senior teachers in the school. They said that Classroom environment is a critical part of effective instruction”. “Effective classroom management, which begins with efficient lesson planning preparation, helps teacher to teach and students to learn. “Students thrive in a positive class climate and an environment in which they feel safe, cared for and involved”.
From a student perspective, effective Classroom environment provides students with opportunities to socialize while learning interesting content”.
From a teacher perspective, effective classroom management involves preventive discipline and interesting instruction”. Similarly, Classroom environment is important because it keeps students motivated to continue their work, provides appropriate instruction and feedback, and managing student work and it can keep disruptive behaviors down to a minimum”. The effective teacher is an extremely good classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom and cannot build self confidence in students”. “If students are disorderly and disrespectful, and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm”. Teachers who use early education kit during the period they perform better instead of them they use only traditional method of teaching.
Well managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish”. “Many research studies have resulted that a conducive classroom environment promotes students’ academic achievement” and student’s self-confidence. “Classroom environment strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students”. “The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning to take place”. “Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply early childhood education strategies that will allow and also help students to build self-confidence.
Dike (1993) also explained that students forget because of lack of interest and opportunities to use the knowledge they have gained later on. Audio-visual resources can therefore contribute to the clarity of information presented by allowing students to visualize what is learned. Thus the saying:
What I hear, I forget.
What I see, I remember.
What I do, I know.
The term has also been defined by (Dike, 1993) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic.
According to (Anzaku, 2011) “the term audio-visual materials is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. Thus according to the above definition, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience, for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the audio-visual materials like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. This term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips.
Basing learning in sense experience, Extending experience ,Encouraging participation, Stimulating interest ,Individualizes instructions, Serves as a source of information, Making leaning permanent,1) Basing learning in sense experience: stressing the importance of audio-visual materials, ( Ngozi,B.O. Samuel,A.O.andIsaac, O.A., 2012) unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.
(Eze,E.U. 2013) also states that the human being learns more easily and faster by audio-visual processes than by verbal explanations alone. His ability to arrive at abstract concept through perceptual experience is however a phenomenon not clearly explained and perhaps not explicable. Furthermore, (Oketunji, 2000) stressed that audio-visual materials when effectively used have these advantages. They lessen major weakness of verbalism, humanize and vitalize subject matter, provide interesting approach to new topics and give initial correct impressions, economic time in learning, supply concrete materials needed, stimulate the initiative of the pupils.
Swank,R.C (2011). stressing the effectiveness of visual materials in leaning, estimated that about 40% of our concepts are based upon visual experience, 25% upon auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% upon miscellaous organic sensation and 3% upon taste smell. With the above assertion, it becomes clearer why audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes. This is because, they bring the different senses contributions together to get 100% clarity.
ies of presenting subject matter. That is to say, with audio-visual materials, the barrier of communication and distance is broken. The culture and climatic conditions of other countries can be brought into the classroom with the aid of slides, films, filmstrips and projectors. This is important because, according to Dike (1993) “once the phenomenon is visualized, the picture and knowledge becomes very clear and permanent”. Agreeing to this assertion, a 20th century Chinese philosopher stated that “one picture is worth a thousand words”
(Natoli, C. 2011) once again added that “audio-visual materials are rich opportunities for students to develop communication skill while actively engaged in solving meaningful problems”. In other words, students certainly like it more and learn better if they are engaged in important and appealing activities. For example, involving students in bulletin board display will enhance their choice of colour and aid their understanding of the concept in question or when they join the teacher in dramatization of an event or a process.
According to (Katherine M. 2009) “learning takes place effectively when the teacher sets out to provide learning situation in which a child will learn because of his natural reactions of the provided materials”. During the process of learning, the teacher has to provide the learning situation to satisfy the natural reaction of the learner and this is through the use of instructional aids. The attention of the learner is caught and his interest is also won and he is ready to learn.
Fawcett Hills (1994) also contributing on the role of audio-visual materials in stimulating interest stated that “A friendly, accepting group climate is important in any learning situations, especially those materials that require students to reveal their ignorance and confront their fellow students”. When there is a climate of acceptance for learning, then learning is stimulated.
Lestage A. (1959) stressed that audio-visual materials provide a means of individualizing instruction. This he said is possible through programmed learning and tapes which enable the learner to learn at his pace and also to work on his own. Moreover, according to Dike (1993) the machine frees the teacher to work with individual students, since he or she is not now required to carry out routine drills. Production of resources by students is another way of individualizing instruction.
According to Peterson, “the child is to think, but he must have the information to with”. This audiovisual resources serves, because, the information can be got from the good use of perceptual instructional materials especially those provided from our locality. When they are used in the class, their familiarity gives a back-ground for understanding the information.
(Mcnaught, A.2007) also observed that audio-visual materials are very useful teaching and instructional as well as promotional aids. He further stressed that where consistency of presentation is desirable, audio-visual materials are useful. They provide experiences not easily secured in other ways and hence contribute to the depth and variety of learning.
Audio-visual resources can play a major role of making learning permanent, (Gopal V. P. 2010) stressed that “audio-visual methods do seem to facilitate the acquisition, the retention and the recall of lessons learned, because, they seem to evoke the maximum response of the whole organism to the situations in which learning is done. And perceptual materials readily associate themselves with the unique experiential background of each individual.
(Natoli, C. (2011) stressed that audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes because “Having seen something, most people remember, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up an image at a mere mention and can be talked about freely.
What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from literature.
Variables of the study:
Total two variables included in this research. One is independent variable other is dependent variable. Early childhood education kit is independent variables and student’s performance used as dependent variable. Early childhood education kit includes so many things. Some of these are discussed below.
1. Drawing Pads:
Use for art and craft activities, for writing Rota posters, for keeping records and for writing notice messages.
2. Colored Pencils:
Use for art and craft activities for 2 to 6-year-old children.
3. Jumbo, Big Size, Wax Crayon:
Use for art and craft activities for 2 to 3-year-old children.
4. Plain White Paper Roll:
Use for art and craft activities, for writing rotes and activities schedules, and to use as drawing paper for large drawings.
5. Transparent Adhesive Tape:
Use for posting drawings and posters on the wall, and for art and craft activities.
Use for collages and art and craft activities for 2 to 8-year-old children.
7. Stack and Sort Set:
Use for playing activities for 2 to 6-year-old children. Suitable for preschool numeracy activities.
8. Dominoes Set:
Use for playing activities for 3 to 8 years old children. Suitable for pre-school numeracy activities.
Use for playing activities for 6 months to 6-year-old children.
10. Stringing Beads:
Use to create toys for infants and for playing activities for 3 to 8-year-olds children.
11. Hand Animal-Puppets:
Use for storytelling and playing activities for 0 to 8-year-old children.
12. Flip Chart Markers:
Use for writing on flip charts and paper. Not to be used on blackboards.
Academic performance or “academic achievement” is the extent to which a student, teacher, or institution has attained its short or long-term educational goals. Research has shown that the top four factors that impact student achievement are: classroom management, teaching for learning, home, and parent involvement, and believing that all students can learn. Most things in life are pretty simple, but they are usually not easy.
“The aim of this study is to analyze that “Analysis of early childhood education kit on student’s performance” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives are designed:
- “To check the effect of early childhood education kit on students learning in public schools.
- To compare the effectiveness of teaching with early childhood education kits and simple traditional methods of teaching at primary level schools.
- To find out the significant difference in teaching with early childhood education kits between male and female students.
RQ1. What is the effect of early childhood education kit on students learning in schools?
RQ2.What is the effectiveness of teaching with early childhood education kit and simple traditional method of teaching at primary level schools?
RQ3.What is the difference of teaching with early childhood education kit between male and female students?
The population of the study comprised boys and girls studying at GMPS KIRANWALI, Punjab province of Pakistan.
A total of “50” students (20 boys and 25 girls) were taken as a sample of the study. More Eminabad City was taken as Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, total sample size was 50 respondents including teachers and students. This sample provide appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school GMPS.
The study was concerned with the learning skills of the students taught by Traditional Lecture methods and Group activities method of teaching by using early childhood education kit at primary level.
A learning skill test was developed by the researcher with the help of the research advisor and experts of teaching in order to use it as a pilot-test, pre-test, post-test and retention test for the measurement of the students learning skills on the contents taught to them during the experiment. This test was on the content of five chapters from three class text books.
It was a multiple choice items test consisting of 40 test items, each item had 1 mark. These tests had 40 marks in total.
Improvement of the achievement Test
The achievement test prepared by the researcher was got checked by the three assistant professors of the Basic education expert.
After getting correction, deletion, amendment and improvement, it was finalized for pilot test launching. The finalized test with some ignorable changes was used as pre-test, post-test and retention test.
To compare the learning skills of the students’ taught by traditional lecture method and activities method by using early childhood education kit at primary level, an experiment was conducted in following steps:
For the treatment purpose the control group was taught by using traditional lecture method of teaching while the experimental group was taught by activity method on the base of early childhood education kit. The researcher himself taught both the groups for treatment. Different lesson plans for the control and experimental group were used during the entire treatment. The experiment was continued for two weeks. At the end of each chapter a same quiz was administered for both the groups marked and tabulated. At the end of the eight week an achievement test was again administered as post-test. After one month of the experiment, the same achievement test was again administered as retention test. The answer scripts were marked and tabulated as per key.
This experiment was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of the Traditional Lecture method and Group activities method of teaching by using early childhood education kit at primary level. For this purpose, pre-test, post-test equivalent group design was adopted. An achievement test was administered in the start of experiment, termed as pre-test. The answer scripts were marked and tabulated. On the basis of the achievement scores of the pre-test the subjects were randomly divided into two groups the control and the experimental group having almost the same value of arithmetic mean and standard deviation. After a treatment of the two weeks, the same instrument was used as post-test for both the groups. The answer scripts were marked and tabulated as per key. After period of one-month retention test of both the groups the answer was one again marked and tabulated.
The student’s scores in these achievement tests i.e. pilot test, pre-test, post-test and retention test served as data of the experiment.
Analysis of Data
The raw score obtained from the achievement tests (pre-test, post-test and retention test) were arranged in tabulated form for interpretation. Mean scores, standard deviation, significance of the differences between means, co-efficient of variation, pooled variance and standard error of the means were used for the analysis of data.
Significance of the difference between mean achievement scores of both the groups; the experimental and the control group as well as of different variables such as the high achievers, the low achievers, boys and girls, girls and girls, boys and boys were calculated applying “t” statistic at 0.05 level of the significance. The Significance of the Difference between Means is calculated by using the “t” formula given by (Mangal, 2004), which is as under:
Where the is pooled standard deviation.
Pooled standard deviation or =
Where =X1- M1
And = X2- M2
Degree of freedom” df” is calculated to find “t” value by using the following formula for small sample:
After calculation of “df”; the value of “t” is observed in “t” table under the column 0.05 or 5% or 0.01 or 1% of significance to reject or accept the null hypothesis. If the calculated value of “t” comes greater than the tabulated (critical) value, the null hypothesis is rejected. If the calculated value of “t” comes less than the tabulated (critical) value the null hypothesis is accepted (Mangal, 2004).
At the end of the study, the following findings were made:
- There is a significant difference in the learning skill of students taught Basic science concepts using modern teaching strategies by using an early childhood education kit (Experimental group) and their counterparts who were taught the same concepts using the lecture method (control group). The experimental group achieved significantly higher than the control group.
- There is a significant difference between the retention level of students taught Basic science concepts using modern teaching strategy by using early childhood education kit and those taught same concepts using lecture method. The students exposed to modern teaching strategy. Retained the taught concepts significantly better than their counterparts exposed to Lecture method.
- There is no significant difference in academic performance between the students of different schools taught Basic science concepts using the modern teaching strategy by using early childhood education kit, thus modern teaching strategy is gender friendly.
From the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn:
- Method of Teaching strategy by using ECE kit that teachers employ in teaching has significant effects on student’s academic performance.
- Team work teaching strategy facilitates effective learning of Basic science concepts.
- Students that were taught using ECE kit Teaching Strategy retained the learned concepts significantly better than those taught the same concepts using conventional Lecture Teaching Strategy.
- Neither the male nor the female students performed significantly better than the other when Basic science concepts were taught to them using either the Team work Teaching Strategy or the conventional lecture method. Both teaching methods appear on them equally.
- Lecture method of teaching appear to be inferior to modern teaching strategy in the teaching of Basic concepts as they affect the student’s academic performance and retention of the learned concepts.
University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub theme. My topic that I choose “analysis of early childhood education kit”. I choose this topic because I have to face problem about focus in the school. It is difficult to create concentrating environment in the class during teaching.
It also investigated the effects of school environment and management related differences on students’ academic performance in the concept of measurement when taught using activity methods and Lecture methods.
The sample comprised a total of 50 students of two class drawn from primary schools of district Gujranwala. They were selected by simple random sampling technique.
A 40-item multiple choice instrument, the academic work performance Test (CWT) with a reliability co-efficient of .979 was used to collect relevant data which were analyzed using t- test statistical package. The results obtained were presented and discussed. This study has the following major findings.
The aim of this study is to investigate the analysis of early childhood education kit. My research in rural area basic skills. My project participants were the students of govt model primary school Kiranwali situated in More Eminabad. In rural areas mostly teachers not used ECE kit to teach the students.
Classroom atmosphere is very important element in study because it helps building self-confidence in students. Test on board helpful for building confidence in students. When I ask the students look at me then possibility some students maybe not focused. But when I show something during the lecture in the class then students must look at this. So ECE KIT is very helpful in teaching to increase the interest of the students.
So I used different technique for creating Hygienic atmosphere in the class. Students were happy and learn quickly on the base of hygienic atmosphere in the class. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas teacher create hygienic atmosphere in the lass then students have no problem of self-confidence and focus in education. Students response to the implementation of teaching if they teach in hygienic atmosphere. I created hygienic atmosphere in the class through different activities and by using different teaching aids. I learn that how to improve the student’s concentration and focus during the study. Finally, I feel satisfied.
It added some new things in my knowledge key points are given below.
- It made me good organizer.
- It made me ready for everything that is throw their way.
- It enabled me how to create Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom using ECE KIT for building concentration in students.
- Test on board helpful for building self-confidence in students.
- It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
- Before these activities I was not a good organizer.it made me innovative.
- I started find out new things before I have not insert. But when I started my project a grate change brought in my thinking.
- I capable to find out new things for building self-confidence in students.
- It made me good effective teacher and mentor.
- It made me good role model.
- It made me confident. Teacher ‘self-confidence can help influence other to be a better person.
- It made me capable to understand how to create classroom atmosphere according to student’s psyche to maintain self-confidence and focus at primary level.
- It tells me how unhygienic atmosphere effect on student’s self-confidence level and focus.
- Aina, M.E and Olutade, S.A (2006). General Teaching Methods:nSchool of Education National Open University, Nigeria.
- Anzaku Francis (2011). Library Experts Speaks on Audio-Visual Material. A paper presented at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultured Organization (UNESCO) World Day for Audio-Visual Heritage. Lafia.
- .Anueleonue, N.C. (2008) Using Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Secondary Schools: Prospects and Challenges for 21st Century. Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development. National Association for Research Devloptment (NARD) 10(1) 178-182 July.
- Dike , V.W (1993). Library Resources in Education , Enugu: ABIC Publisher.
- Eze, E.U. (2005). Effect of Instructional Materials on the Acadmic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Social Studies. Unpublished PGDE Thesis. Imo State University-Nigeria
- Fayemi T.A (1991). The Effect of Instructional Materials on Learning of History in Selected Primary Schools in Ogbomosho Local Government Area: Unpublished B.ED Thesis.
- Federal Republic of Nigeria (2008), National Policy on Education. Revises Federal Government Press.
- Gopal Vinayak Patil. (2010). Importance of Audio-Visual in teaching methodology. Mahourastra, India.
- International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions IFLA, (2004). Guidelines for Audio-Visual and Multimedia Materials in Libraries and other Institutions archive.infla.org/vll/535/pubs/avm-guidelines04.htm.
- Hallett, T.L and Faria, G (2006), Teaching with Multimedia: Do Bells and Wishtles Help Students Learn . Journal of Technology and Human Services 24(2/3): 167-79
- Katherine Martin (2009) Audio-Visual Materials: Collection Development Policy, Rod Library University of Northern lowa.
- Andre (1959). The use of Audio-Visual Aids in Education: Extracted from UNESCO Chronicles, Regional Seminar on the use of Audio-Visual Aids in Adult and School Education in Latin America at Mexico City from 28 September to 17 October 1959.
- Mcnaught, A (2007), Moving Images and Sound : Inclusive and Accessible. Moving Images Knowledge and access: The BUFVC Handbook edited by C. Grant and I. Mekere London: British Universities Film and Video Council pp. 29-33.
- Natoli, Carol (2011). The Importance of Audio-Visual Materials in Teaching and Learning. wwwhelium.com/channels/224-earlychildhood-ed.
- Ngozi, B.O, Samuel A.O, Ameh O.I, (2012) , Motivating use of Audio-Visual in a Nigeria Technological University Library. Journal of Edcation and Social Research Vol. 2(1) Jan.
- Oketunji I (2000), Application for Information Technologies in Nigerian Libraries: Probles and Prospects in I.K : Nwalo (ed); Information Technology in Library and Information Technology Education in Nigeria. National Association of Library and Information Sceience Education NALISE
- Prostano and Prostano (1982), The School Library Medis Centre 3rd USA.
- Swank, R.C (2011), The Educational Function of University Library. http://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitestream/handle/2142/5455/librarytrend
- Webster’s Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1994) Newyork: Gramery Books.
- Baecker & Buxton (1987). Readings in HumanComputer Interaction: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Los Altos, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
- Barron, A. E. (1991). The effectiveness of digital audio in computerbased training. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Central Florida.
- Darwin, C. J., Turvey, M. T., & Crowder, R. G. (1972). An auditory analogue of the Sperling partial report procedures: Evidence for brief auditory storage. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 255-267.
- Dempster, F. N. ;1985). Short term memory development. In C. J. Brainerd & M. Pressley (Eds.). Basic process in memory development. NY: Springer-Verlag 208- 248.
- Hanson, L. (1989, October). Multichannel research applied to television production: A review and synthesis of the literature. Educational Technology, 15-19.
- Hartman, F. (1961a) . Single and multiple channel communication: A review of research and a proposed model. Audio Visual Communication Review 8, 235 262.
- Hartman, F. (1961h, November (December) . Single and multiple channel communications: A review of research and a proposed model. AV Communication Review 9, (6), 235- 262.
- Hsia, H. J. (1968a) . On channel effectiveness. AV Communication review, 16, 245-267. Hsia, H. J. (1968b, December) . Output, error, equivocation and recalled informal: n in auditory, visual and audiovisual information processing. Journal of Communication, 18, 325-353.
- Kozma, R.B. (1991, Summer) . Learning with Media. Review of Educational Research. 61, (2),179-211.
- Laddaga, R., Levine, A., & Suppes, P. (19981). Studies of student preferences for computer assisted instruction with audio. In P. Suppes (Ed.), University Level ComputerAssisted Instruction at Stanford: 1968-1981. Stanford, CA: Sta ford University.
- Allwood, C. M. (2010a). The realism in children’s metacognitive judgments of their episodic memory performance. In A. Efklides & P. Misailidi (Eds.), Trends and prospects in metacognition research (pp. 149–169). New York: Springer.
- Allwood, C. M. (2010b). Eyewitness confidence. In P. A. Granhag (Ed.), Forensic psychology in context (pp. 281–303). Uffculme, Devon: Willan Publishing.
- Allwood, C. M., & Granhag, P. A. (1999). Feelings of confidence and the realism of confidence judgments in everyday life. In P. Juslin & H. Montgomery (Eds.), Judgment and decision making: Neo-Brunswikian and process-tracing approaches (pp. 123–146). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.
- Allwood, C. M., Granhag, P. A., & Jonsson, A. C. (2006). Child witnesses’ metamemory realism. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47, 461–470.
- Allwood, C. M., Innes-Ker, Å., Holmgren, J., & Fredin, G. (2008). Children’s and adults’ realism in their event-recall confidence in response to free recall and focused questions. Psychology, Crime & Law, 14, 529–547.
- Ames, C. (1992). Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.
- Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117–148.
- Burchinal, M. R., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Pianta, R., & Howes, C. (2002). Development of academic skills from preschool through second grade: Family and classroom predictors of developmental trajectories. Journal of School Psychology, 40(5), 415–436.