AIOU Teaching Practice II Lesson Plans 6555 Biology

LESSON PLAN (BIOLOGY)

LESSON PLAN 01

BLOOD TYPING

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

Teacher Name:
Topic:  Blood Typing, predicting blood type offspring, determining possible donors/receivers
Content:  blood-typing, Punnett square, universal donor, universal receiver, compatibility, genotype, phenotype
Goals:  Students will be able to predict possible blood types of offspring. Students will be able to determine what blood types are compatible.
Objectives:  TLW use Punnett squares to disprove the paternity of offspring based on blood types. TLW describe why an injured person can or cannot receive blood from certain doners and why.
Materials:  smart board presentation cups blood type chart red food coloring http://www.lessonplanspage.com/SciencePEBloodTypeCompatibilityDemonstration512.htm (print off) http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/problem_sets/blood_types/blood_types.html computer internet blood typing worksheet blue food coloring
Introduction:  Scenario 1 – teenager questions whether her sister has the same father as she. Scenario 2 – a person is rushed to the hospital and is given the wrong type of blood.
Development:  1. Review how to use Punnett squares 2. Show ALL possible genotypes and phenotypes for blood. 3. Show 2 practice problems to determine possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring 4. smart board presentation showing how blood typing is done. 5. Show pictures of what happens when the wrong blood types are mixed. 6. Discussion on how mixing blood types can kill a patient.
Practice:  1. Give genotypes of parents and use Punnett squares to determine genotypes and phenotypes of possible offspring. 2. blood typing lab with food coloring
Accommodations:  Give students a print off of the smart board questions and notes. Allow students to work with a partner when completing the independent practice. Give gifted students more difficult questions and ask them to explain their answers.
Checking For Understanding:  1. Students will write a paragraph explaining why it is important to know a patient’s blood type before giving them blood and explain what blood types are the best for donating and receiving. 2. Students will write a paragraph explaining how Punnett squares using blood typing cannot prove someone is the parent, just that someone is not the parent.
Closure:  Ask students to write in their notes what they learned in class and why it is important to them.
Evaluation:  Check their practice and read and respond to their paragraphs. Students should be able to answer the smart board questions and worksheet questions correctly.
Teacher Reflections:  Were students able to determine the best blood type to receive and donate and back their explaination? Were students able to support how to determine why someone is not the parent of a child?

 

LESSON PLAN 02

CELL DIVISION PART 1

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  BINARY FISSION AND MITOSIS  
  Content:  Despite differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, there are several common features in their cell division processes. Replication of the DNA must occur. Segregation of the “original” and its “replica” follow. Cytokinesis ends the cell division process. Whether the cell was eukaryotic or prokaryotic, these basic events must occur.  
  Goals:  TSWD the understanding of the terms and process involved with cellular replication.  
  Objectives:  Students will demonstrate understanding by drawing and labelling the stages of fission and mitosis.  
  Materials:  Unlined paper (1 sheet), colored pencils, pencil, crayons, light microscope, slides, cover slips, onion (fresh), toothpicks, knife (used by teacher only), iodine stain, overhead projector.  
  Introduction:  Prokaryotic Cell Division Prokaryotes are much simpler in their organization than are eukaryotes. There are a great many more organelles in eukaryotes, also more chromosomes. The usual method of prokaryote cell division is termed binary fission. The prokaryotic chromosome is a single DNA molecule that first replicates, then attaches each copy to a different part of the cell membrane. When the cell begins to pull apart, the replicate and original chromosomes are separated. Following cell splitting (cytokinesis), there are then two cells of identical genetic composition (except for the rare chance of a spontaneous mutation). Eukaryotic cells Due to their increased numbers of chromosomes, organelles and complexity, eukaryote cell division is more complicated, although the same processes of replication, segregation, and cytokinesis still occur.  
  Development:  Boardwork and or overhead projector. Illustrate the stages of division and ky vocabulary.  
  Practice:  Procedure Part A: Slide Preparation Onion Skin a. First take a piece of onion skin off the onion. b. Put it flat on a slide. c. Bring the slide to the leader for a drop of iodine stain. d. Carefully put on a cover slip remembering to angle it. e. Examine the cell under low then medium power. f. Adjust your microscope to a higher power.  
  Accommodations:  Prepare slides if needed.  
  Checking For Understanding:  Have students restate lesson throughout. Check slide preps, illustrations and descriptions.  
  Closure:  Check for understanding by questioning the main points covered.  
  Evaluation:    
  Teacher Reflections:    

 

LESSON PLAN 03

CELLULAR DIVISION

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  Cellular division  
  Content:  Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, synthesis, spindle fibers, centrioles, centromeres, telomeres, chromosomes, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, nucleolus, reduction division, variation, meiosis  
  Goals:  Students will understand the importance of mitosis and meiosis as the means by which living organisms reproduce.  
  Objectives:  1. Students will be able to recognize and reproduce the stages of mitosis and meiosis, and be able to distinguish between the two processes.  
  Materials:  Powerpoint Slide Presentation of topic and concepts.  
  Introduction:  Intro to slideshow presentation  
  Development:  Use Inquiry/Problem model as presentation is viewed.  
  Practice:  Look at presentation slides depicting cells in various stages of mitosis. Have students count, draw and label cells in different stages in their notebooks. Quantify class results to develop an estimate of percentage of cells in the different phases.  
  Accommodations:  Use inquiry and cooperative group models to allow for verbal/linguistic learning. The presentation and computer exercises will provide visual learning opportunities, and the experiment/research work will allow plenty of hands-on learning.  
  Checking For Understanding:  Students will write up the presentation, experimental, and research efforts in their notebooks, and then incorporate this work into a research term paper.  
  Closure:  Class and teacher will discuss the research results in  
  Evaluation:  Have students use their notebooks, reports, and term papers to answer quiz questions covering the presentation. See if class can come up with additional material to improve the presentation.  
  Teacher Reflections:  Analyze the presentation and class interactions. Go over what worked, what didn’t, and revise presentation to reflect this analysis. Incorporate relevent student revisions of material.  

 

LESSON PLAN 04

CELL DIVISION UNIT

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  Cell division  
  Content:  Mitosis and meiosis  
  Goals:  Goal 1: The learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry. Goal 2: The learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical, and cellular basis of life. 2.03 Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including:  Maintenance of homeostasis.  Movement of materials into and out of cells.  
  Objectives:  2.03 Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including:  Maintenance of homeostasis.  Movement of materials into and out of cells.  
  Materials:  Egg, vinegar, etc  
  Introduction:  Class will discuss commonly understood diffusion phenomena in their lives, (e.g., perfume counter at mall, baking bread in oven).  
  Development:  Students will apply knowledge to draw diagrams and fill out exercise sheets. Students will act out the process of osmosis and differential diffusion using barriers they can/cant fit through (e.g., heights of students representing different types of molecules).  
  Practice:  Students will work in lab teams to discuss vocabulary and conduct experiments. The students will learn about osmosis and diffusion in plant and animal cells through experiments with decalcified chicken eggs, beets, and dialysis tubing, all of which are placed in solutions of various concentrations.  
  Accommodations:  Level 1: Students given concept map for unit and graphic organizer to review vocabulary. They will spend more time drawing important concepts; drawings for work sheets and labs will be referred to during discussions and labs. Lab prepped ahead to allow for greater investigation and discussion time. Overall pace slower to allow for greater discussion and activities. Omit tubing experiment if time constrained.Students given concept map for unit and graphic organizer to review vocabulary. They will spend more time drawing important concepts; drawings for work sheets and labs will be referred to during discussions and labs. Lab prepped ahead to allow for greater investigation and discussion time. Overall pace slower to allow for greater discussion and activities. Omit tubing experiment if time constrained. Level 2: Lab run without prep. Students engage in a discussion of challenges (and adaptations) for plants and animals living in aquatic, arid, or polluted environments. Add optional carrot or potato experiment. Level 3: In addition to level 2, students are expected to understand and use the more technical terms associated with osmosis, diffusion, and solutions. Students design and carry out an experiment to test the permeability of a plastic bag to iodine in solution; explain/discuss what happened and why. At home assignment: celery in dye photo essay.  
  Checking For Understanding:  Students fill out review questions as end of period quiz Student participation discussion. Diagrams with labels.  
  Closure:  Students fill out review questions as end of period quiz  
  Evaluation:  Assessment tools for data collection:  Bell work pre-assessment  Worksheets/vocabulary  Lab write-ups  Discussions  
  Teacher Reflections:    

 

LESSON PLAN 05

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSSEL SPECIES

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  Mussel Identification  
  Content:  This lesson is an in-class, hands-on, and an online interactive activity created in Flash technology that allows users to identify species of mussels by choosing sets of characteristics of the mussels in question through a series of choices.  
  Goals:  Students will be able to identify 5 species of various mussels, by sets of physical characteristics as they use a dichotomous key.  
  Objectives:  Students will be able to identify species of animals, such as various mussels, by sets of physical characteristics as they use a key.  
  Materials:  Instructor to introduce concepts of mussel shell anatomy using actual mussel shells or digital images of mussels shells of five different species identification guide sheet printout or interactive game.  
  Introduction:  1. Instructor will introduce the activity by presenting a short discussion of sets of characteristics that can be used to identify things, using an example the students are familiar with (dogs: size, color, shape, hair type, ear shape, etc.) and tell students that they are going to use sets of characteristics presented by the interactive game to choose which characteristics a mussel has as it goes through the steps of identification.  
  Development:  The instructor or leader will help students read about mussels in the Illinois River and look at mussel species in the online database. The instructor will place the identification guide poster on a table and line up five mussel shells of different species (or color cut-outs of the specified mussel species from the online collection printouts) across the top.  
  Practice:  Students will read aloud and define each set of key characteristics that will help them to identify each species. Students will move one species of mussel through the sets of identifying characteristics of the chart.  
  Accommodations:    
  Checking For Understanding:  Students will realize that they have successfully identified their mussel at the end of the activity, or they will be allowed to back up and try again to correct an error. Students will list the characteristics their mussel(s) exhibit. They can check it against the descriptions of the mussel on the Harvesting the River Web site and in the online database. Students should be able to explain what they did, how sets of characteristics are used to identify living things or species, and how a key helps them.  
  Closure:  The instructor will point out that there are many hundreds of species, some of which may have other sets of identifying characteristics, but the principles still apply to them and to other animals.  
  Evaluation:  Students will move one species of mussel through the sets of identifying characteristics of the chart. When the mussel reaches a characteristic at the bottom of the chart, the mussel has been identified.  
  Teacher Reflections:    
       

 

LESSON PLAN 06

COMMUNITIES, BIOMES, AND ECOSYSTEMS

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems  
  Content:  Vocabulary: climax community, community, ecological succession,limiting factor, primary succession, secondary succession, tolerance,latitude, tundra, boreal forest temperate forest, weather, climate, tropical rain forest, woodland, primary succession, desert, tropical suvanna, abyssal zone, aphotic zone, benthic zone, estuary, interidal zone, limnetic zone, littoral zone, photic zone, plankton, profundal zone, sediment wetlands  
  Goals:  Limiting factors and ranges of tolerance are factors that determine where terrestrial biomes and aquatic ecosystems exist  
  Objectives:  Section 3.3 Objectives: 1. Identify the major abiotic factors that determine the aquatic ecosystems. 2. Recognize that freshwater ecosystems are characterized by depth and water flow. 3. Identify transitional aquatic ecosystems and their importance. 4. Distinguish the zones of marine ecosystems.  
  Materials:  Chapter 3 Vocabulary Word Search Launch Lab Chapter, p. 76 Mini Lab Chapter 3, p. 77 Video Lab Chapter, DVD, Bio L. 79 Real World Biology – Analysis,p.81 Handout / Careers in Biology, p. 82 Webb Site Enrichment – HO, Homework – Mapping – p. 84. Chapter 3 Study Guide – Section 3.3 – Homework  
  Introduction:  Interactive Classroom 1. Power Point Presentation Chapter 3, Section 3.3 Aquatic Ecosystems 2. TLW – Read Chapter 3 for Homework Assignment before class  
  Development:  Start – up Activities A. Foldable Study Organizer, Used with Section 3.1 to study what we learn about primary succession and secondary succession. Fun Activty  
  Practice:  Chapter 3, Study Guides for guided practice and home work Assessment at the end of the chapter  
  Accommodations:  Teaching strategies and activities have been coded for ability level appropriateness. A competency level is given for each activity using different coding systems for each student.  
  Checking For Understanding:  Daily Quiz, Formative Assessments Chapter 3 Assessment Practice Chapter 3 Quick Check Chapter 3 Test, Standardized Testing  
  Closure:  Review the BIG Idea Check for understanding of main idea’s Check vocabulary Assign Next Chapter  
  Evaluation:    
  Teacher Reflections:    

 

LESSON PLAN 07

BIODIVERSITY

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  Biodiversity  
  Content:  Earth and Space Science CONTENT STANDARD D As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of  Energy in the earth system  Geochemical cycles  Origin and evolution of the earth system  Origin and evolution of the universe Vocabulary: earthquakes, seismic waves, destruction, seismic vibrations, landslides, fires, tsunaamis  
  Goals:  Competency Goal 2: The learner will build an understanding of lithospheric materials, tectonic processes, and the human and environmental impacts of natural and human-induced changes in the lithosphere. Objective 2.04a  Analyze the seismic waves including velocity and refraction to: – Locate earthquake epicenters – Measure earthquake magnitude – Evaluate the level of seismic activity in North Carolina  
  Objectives:  TLW differentiate between the various destruction caused by earthquakes. (Analysis) TLW create a Earthquake preparedness plan using their knowledge of earthquakes. (Synthesis)  
  Materials:  Power point lecture notes, computer (teacher), Triple Venn- Diagram per student, Modeling Liquefaction Lab worksheet per student, Earthquake Preparedness activity sheet, computers with internet (students), overhead projector, transparencies, Destruction from Earthquakes worksheet, chalk, chalkboard, chalk eraser, four-column-chart per student Demonstration Materials: large, round rubber balloon, large drinking straw, rubber stopper with hole for drinking straw, filter paper, scissors, all-purpose glue, funnel, 500g clean, dry, medium grained sand, 250ml graduated cylinder, tap water, measuring cup, vacuum pump  
  Introduction:  Upon entering the classroom, students will retrieve a Triple Venn-Diagram from the center table to complete the Bell Ringer. The Bell- Ringer will state that each student should compare and contrast P, S, and surface (L) waves. The first five minutes will be devoted to completing the Bell Ringer and then as a group the student and the teacher will make a class Triple Venn-Diagram on the overhead. During this session students will be called on randomly for answers using the playing cards by the teacher.  
  Development:  Teacher Presentation: At the start of the power point lecture, teacher will ask students to explanation how they think earthquakes destroy things, have seen earthquakes destroy things, or have heard how earthquakes destroy things. Class will formulate a list of the different types of destruction caused by earthquakes. Teacher will explain how seismic waves affect build designs during an earthquake, whether it is minor or destructive. Teacher will explain the concept of liquefaction in which students will have a closer glimpse in a later demonstration. Teacher will elaborate on what a tsunami is and clear up the misconception that most people have about it being tidal waves. Explaining that this is not true because they are neither a tidal effect of the sun or moon, rather they are due to destructive seismic sea waves. Teacher will also elaborate on how earthquakes can cause fires and landslides. Teacher will inquire if students know how earthquakes can cause a fire before explaining that earthquakes can cause gas or electrical lines to be cut. Teacher will be sure to stop periodically throughout lecture to ask questions to determine student comprehension by calling on students randomly using the playing cards.  
  Practice:  Guided Practice: Students will be divided into pairs to observe a teacher demonstration that will model liquefaction. Each pair will be required to complete the questions pertaining to the demonstration on the Modeling Liquefaction Lab worksheet for aevaluation of the concepts they should have obtained and concluded from observation. Each pair will then have the task of creating and writing down an earthquake preparedness plan and checking websites to see if their plan is in accordance with the plans of the professionals. They will be required to write down the plan found on the website and cross reference it with their own plan, putting checks next to the steps they have tat were also found in the plan from the chosen site. Demonstration Preparation: Teacher Preparation- The teacher will gather all materials for the demonstration and put them where students will not get to them Teacher will gather safety apron and safety eye wear to prepare for demonstration. Teacher will read all lab procedures and be familiar with all materials prior to demonstration. Safety Precautions: Teacher will need to use safety apron and safety eye wear during teacher demo. Students must remain attentive to the instructor at all times during the lesson in case of any unexpected emergencies. (for demonstration) Demonstration Grouping- Students will work in pairs from their assigned seats as they observe the liquefaction model demonstration performed by the teacher. Students must remain seated while the demonstration is presented. Pre Lab: Students have received, signed, and returned all Safety Contracts. Class has reviewed rules previously and taken a quiz on the rules. Teacher will elaborate on the concepts of liquefaction prior to the demonstration through lecture. Lab: Teacher will follow all procedures from beginning to end in front of students to familiarize them with lab safety procedures, in which they already know (safety contract) to prepare them for the next lab. Post Lab: Teacher will elaborate on what students should have observed during the demonstration through class discussion.  
  Accommodations:  Students will visual disabilities will be provided with notes and worksheets in large print. These students will also have preferential seating (front of the room). Students classified as SLD will receive extended time on assignments and modified assignment (abbreviated number of problems covering the same amount of concepts).  
  Checking For Understanding:  The closure activity and the periodic lecture questions will serve as an evaluation of the mastery level reached by the students on the concepts covered for the lesson.  
  Closure:  Teacher will briefly review the concepts covered in the lesson. Teacher will ask questions from the days lecture and lab calling on students randomly using the playing cards they received at the beginning of class.  

 

LESSON PLAN 08

DNA MITOCHONDRIA

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:
  Topic:  DNA Mitochondria, RNA and Protein Synthesis  
  Content:  Subject Matter: Components and function of DNA Mitochondria, RNA and proteins Key Terms: chromosome DNA Mitochondria RNA protein nucleotide adenine (A) guanine (G) cytosine (C) thymine (T) uracil (U) Deoxyribose ribose base pairing replication transcription mRNA rRNA tRNA translation codon polymerase promoter intron exon mutation nondisjunction Griffith Avery Hershey & Chase Chargaff Franklin Watson & Crick double helix  
  Goals:  Washington State Life Science Objectives: Objective 9-11 LS1C Students will know that: “Cells contain specialized parts for determining essential functions such as regulation of cellular activities, energy capture and release, formation of proteins, waste disposal, the transfer of information, and movement.” Students will be expected to: “Draw, label, and describe the functions of components of essential structures within cells (e.g., cellular membrane, nucleus, chromosome, chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosome).” Objective 9-11 LS1E Students will know that: “The genetic information responsible for inherited characteristics is encoded in the DNA molecules in chromosomes. DNA Mitochondria is composed of four subunits (A,T,C,G). The sequence of subunits in a gene specifies the amino acids needed to make a protein. Proteins express inherited traits (e.g., eye color, hair texture) and carry out most cell function.” Students will be expected to: “Describe how DNA Mitochondria molecules are long chains linking four subunits (smaller molecules) whose sequence encodes genetic information. Illustrate the process by which gene sequences are copied to produce proteins.” Upon completion of the unit, students will have an understanding that DNA Mitochondria and RNA contain instructions for life on genes, and are involved in protein synthesis, and that mutations cause positive, negative or no effect on genetic variations.  
  Objectives:  Students will be able to…. 1. identify the components of DNA Mitochondria 2. replicate a sequence of DNA 3. identify the components of RNA 4. Transcribe a sequence DNA into RNA 5. explain the process of translation 6. utilize the Codon chart to translate a sequence of RNA and 7. describe the role of proteins in cells/body systems 8. identify key scientists involved in the discovery of DNA Mitochondria and its capabilities  
  Materials:  Textbook, presentation/lecture material (PPT, Smart Notebook file, or ActiveInspire Flipchart, video clips), paper/manipulatives activities, online activities (http://learn.genetics.utah.edu and http://www.explorelearning.com)  
  Introduction:  Students will view video clips about the structure and role of DNA in determining genetic information.  
  Development:  (Based on classes that are <60 min) Following the video clips on genetics and DNA/RNA, students will: Days 1-2 1. view a presentation (PPT or Flipchart)about DNA 2. complete an online activity (ExploreLearning.com) about DNA Mitochondria components and replication 3. complete a paper manipulative activity on DNA Mitochondria structure and replication Days 3-4 1. view a presentation (PPT or Flipchart) about RNA and Protein Synthesis 2. complete an online activity (ExploreLearning.com) about RNA components, transciption and translation 3. complete a worksheet activity on RNA transcription and translation Days 5+ 1. Complete online activities using http://learn.genetics.utah.edu (online notes and activities)  
  Practice:  Each day will begin with a warm-up/bell ringer to either find out previous knowledge, to practice or to assess knowledge obtained throughout the unit. SMART presentations (using SMART response system remotes)or Flipchart presentations (using ActiVote or ActivExpression remotes) could contain questions that monitor student understanding throughout the unit.  
  Accommodations:  ELL students or students with IEPs may require a less rigorous version of the online activities, paper/manipulative activities, and assessments (modified according to their language acquisition or specific IEP goals). GT students can be given additional opportunities to demonstrate their understanding, through more rigorous versions of the previously mentioned items (requiring more application/evaluation/analysis/synthesis). GT students could also be required to perform research on various fields of genetics (DNA fingerprinting, karyotyping, genetic diseases/disorders, genetic engineering of plants and animals, etc.)  
  Checking For Understanding:  Individual assignments, quizzes and tests will have an answer key or a rubric provided.  
  Closure:  Depending on the scope and sequence of the course, this unit could lead into more genetics (Mendelian), cellular reproduction (mitosis and meiosis), or evolution and natural selection.  
  Evaluation:  Warm-ups, assignments, labs, etc. can be marked for completion and accuracy. Traditionally formatted tests can be given to students of all ability levels (with questions modified for specific student needs/abilities). Additional projects for GT students will require specific rubrics based on the type of formal evaluation required/chosen (PPT, poster, brochure, oral presentation, etc.).  
  Teacher Reflections:  Questions to consider after the completion of the unit: 1. How well did the students comprehend the key terms from the presentations? 2. Were the students effectively able to demonstrate protein synthesis (from replication to transcription to translation)? 3. How was the pacing of the unit? (Could more activities be used in this time frame? OR Should less activities be used in this time frame?) 4. How affective was the use of online activities versus pencil and paper activities?  

 

LESSON PLAN 09

DNA REPLICAION

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  DNA Replication  
  Goals:  Standard II (Life Science): Understand the properties, structures, and processes of living things and the interdependence of living Things and their environments. 9-12 Benchmark II: Understand the genetic basis for inheritance and the basic concepts of biological evolution  
  Objectives:  • Students will understand the importance of DNA replication in the creation of new cells in an organism. • Students will understand the actions of enzymes in DNA replication such as primase, polymerase, helicase, and ligase. • Students will recognize replication as being able to add bases in the 5′ to 3′ direction and how this leads to the formation of Okazaki fragments.  
  Materials:  • Overhead projector for teacher demo • Large pony beads and floral or electrical wire • Petri dish to hold demo beads  
  Introduction:  • Diagnostic Assessment o Each student will write three things in that they know about DNA replication. o Each student will also write three questions they now have about DNA and how a cell makes more DNA. • Hook (Engage) o A model of DNA made out of candy will be shown to the class and a brief introduction as to how DNA can replicate itself will be presented. • Introduction to Goals o We will explain the importance of understanding DNA replication in biotechnology. o We will also discuss the importance of making simple models of complex processes in order to explain what is happening, something each student will have a chance to do.  
  Development:  • What should they know? o DNA synthesis can only occur in the 5′ to 3′ direction. o Ligase must piece together Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand due to the direction of replication. o DNA must be replicated accurately so that new cells can form with complete, identical DNA. o Each enzyme has a specific function that is critical to accurate DNA replication. • How will it link to other ideas in Biology? o Replication is an important element of cell mitosis and meiosis. o Replication is one of the processes that can result in genetic mutations, leading to a variety of conditions. o Replication demonstrates the importance and function of enzymes in biological processes. • Are you bringing in any other skills from other disciplines? o Students will have to create models in order to explain the process of replication. o Students will be responsible for written explanations of how their models represent replication. • How will it link to the real world? o DNA replication is important to the utilization of many different biotechnological methods. o Some common diseases can be caused by mutations in DNA replication.  
  Practice:  When scientist Rosalind Franklin first saw the model of DNA created by Watson and Crick based on her research, Ms. Franklin exclaimed, “All that matters is the beauty.” By creating jewelry models of DNA, you too can experience Ms. Franklin’s delight in the beauty of the master molecule of life. Part 1 – Creating a DNA Jewelry Model While creating your DNA model jewelry, keep the following hints in mind: • Your teacher’s demonstration model is there to serve as a guide – refer to it if you need to! • Remember that the “uprights” (helixes) in the model will be double threaded. Be sure to pick beads with large enough holes to accommodate both wires. (Can test by using second wire as a blind, as you thread, and pull the extra through after both sugar-phosphate strands are complete.) • Using needle-nose pliers to “tie-off” the or twist the ends of each wire will save your fingertips. Also, remember that it is easier to thread the wire directly through the beads while they are in the dish rather than trying to pick up the beads with your fingers. NOTE: Except where noted otherwise, the procedure of making key chains, earrings, bracelets, etc.. is exactly the same. To make earrings, you might prefer the small (1.5 mm dia.) seed beads; to make key chains, use the larger (3 mm dia.) E-beads. Procedure: • Step 1: Decide which colors you want to use for your model (you will need to choose beads of six different colors – two different colors for the sugars and phosphates, and four different colors for the base pairs. • Step 2: To make a keychain, earrings, pendant, or central molecule for a silk cord necklace, bracelet, or ankle bracelet, cut two 15 cm (6″) strands of wire. Twist two wires together at one end to prevent beads from slipping off as you string them. These strands of wire will be the helixes, or “uprights” of your DNA model. • Step 3: String an equal and even number of beads of alternating colors onto each of the wires, to represent alternating sugars and phosphates. Make sure to start with the same color bead on each wire. When you have strung the beads on each of the wires, twist a loop at the tops of the “uprights” separately to prevent the beads from falling off. Use a minimum of 26 beads for the basic 2 inch molecule. (when twisted) (Leave one inch of “slack” at the top. If you bead right to the top, it’ll be very difficult to wire the bases.) • Step 4: Cut 30 cm (12″) of wire and fold it in half to make an elongated “U”. Next, string and center two different colored beads on the wire (or each wire, for earrings), to form the first “rung” or pair of nitrogenous bases. • Step 5: Thread each end of the wire with the “bases” beads through the third and fourth beads from the bottom of each of the sugar and phosphate “uprights” and pull tight. You’ve made the first rung. Be sure that the “u-wire’s” ends are even. • Step 6: Pull the ends of the bases wire into the center of the ladder and thread two more bases onto one side of the bases wire and take the other bases wire and thread through the two just-threaded bases to make rung at a right angle to the uprights. *** Important!! The bases wires go through each other in opposite directions.*** (These additional complementary bases can be either the same or different colors from the first two sets of bases you used, depending on your personal preference.) • Step 7: Continue threading the bases wire up through the next sugar and phosphate on each “upright”. Now add two additional complementary bases to the bases wire as you did in Step 6. (At the end of this activity, you will use whatever combination of bases you decided on to determine the amino acids coded for in your model.) Thread the bases wire through the next sugar and phosphate set, and add another base pair. • Steps 5-7 repeat!! Basic pattern is: Up two on both sides Add two in the middle Cross through the two in the middle Up the next two on both sides. And again, and again, and again… • Step 8: Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you have attached alternating base pairs to each sugar and phosphate set of the “uprights”. You should do at least thirteen base pairs to have a large enough molecule to twist. • Step 9: Twist all of the wires at the top of the ladder together. You can twist and cut closely or finish with one last pony-bead or E-bead around the point where the wires form the model and the keychain or earring holder connect. If the molecule is loose, untwist the bottom two wires and gently pull on each . This will tighten the sides and make the bases perpendicular to the sides. Retwist together and trim after tightening. (Not too tight because you still need to twist into a double helix!) • Step 10: Twist your model into the Double Helix, and tape it onto the accompanying worksheet. Make sure you tape the model so that the top of it corresponds to the order of the colors listed in your color key. • Step 11: Then complete Part 2 of your model and decode your model. The jewelry you created will be yours to keep and wear/use after you have handed in this completed worksheet and your teacher has corrected it. NOTE: Provided you have the optional materials needed, you can also use this pattern to make necklaces, bracelets, tie clips, or other pieces of DNA jewelry. To make larger models, start with two lengths of wire for the sugars-phosphates strands approximately double the desired length of the finished piece of jewelry. String the beads as directed, (Steps 1-9). Hint: Thread the bases in sections–18″ of wire in the u-shape for base threading is manageable. Finish off the necklace or bracelet with a barrel clasp, a keychain, or earring wires, as directed in Step 9. Some students might want to make the standard two inch DNA model and use cording to finish into a necklace or bracelet.  
  Accommodations:  The student with ED will participate on a choice of individually or with a group. I will encourage the group choice to develop social skills. All other achievement levels will remain intact.If any problems during the lesson occur the protocol in the IEP will be followed.  
  Checking For Understanding:  The model and the decoding sheet can be quickly checked for accuracy. Since the activity usually takes two hours to complete. I would assess and grade this based on the completion of the model and its accuracy. SEE Pass/Fail check list  
  Closure:  o While using their models, the students will have a worksheet which will guide them through the process of replication. o The worksheet will include a diagram of replication on which the students will label where each enzyme in replication acts in the process. o The worksheet will also ask questions about potential problems in DNA replication and why it is so important for DNA to be copied accurately. The worksheet will allow for a better assessment of the verbal learning group while creating the models will allow for a better assessment of the visual learning group. • Summarize o The students will write in their journals three things that they learned about DNA replication in the day’s lesson and three new questions they have about DNA.  
  Evaluation:  Check List Yes No Model resembles DNA Model has correct colors Model shows accuracy to distance Model can be used for study  
  Teacher Reflections:  To be completed at the end of the lesson.  

 

LESSON PLAN 10

DNA STRUCTURE

Class: 10

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  Structure of DNA  
  Content:  The basic structure of DNA, learning key terms: Double Helix Deoxyribose Nitrogenous Base Adenine,Thymine Guanine,Cytosine  
  Goals:  Strand II: The Content of Science Standard II (Life Science): Understand the properties, structures, and processes of living things and the interdependence of living things and their environments.9-12 Benchmark II: Understand the genetic basis for inheritance and the basic concepts of biological evolution.  
  Objectives:  Students will know the basic structure of a DNA molecule and be able to apply them to building a model  
  Materials:  Toothpicks (2 colors) Mini Marsh mellows (4 colors) Licorice  
  Introduction:  Teacher will give a short history of DNA. Then will diagram the molecule on the board for the students for students.  
  Development:  Teacher will describe and draw the molecule for the students and present a completed model of DNA using candy.  
  Practice:  The students will gather their materials in accordance to what they need.  
  Accommodations:  I will provide any accommodations for any exceptionality via IEP  
  Checking For Understanding:  Each student will show me their model and answer a series of oral questions before they are allowed to eat their model.  
  Closure:  We will review the terms on the board by each student answering one “exit” question. Specifically one they weren’t able to answer before for the model consumption.  
  Evaluation:  Pictures of their models will be taken and used for a semester-long portfolio.  
  Teacher Reflections:  To be completed after lesson.  

 

LESSON PLAN 11

ECOSYSTEM

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  The Ecosystem Review  
  Content:  Review of ecosystem and the important terms and components including the food chain the food webs. Energy pyramids and the interaction of the ecosystem between the living and the nonliving.  
  Goals:  To review for the final exam the section covering ecology and the ecosystem including review of important vocabulary terms and check for understanding on how these terms are used in describing an ecosystem  
  Objectives:  Students will review through teacher guided discussion the important concepts of the ecosystem. After review the students will create flashcards to be used for study for the final exam.  
  Materials:  Glencoe textbook Biology, student textbook and study guide.  
  Introduction:  Warm-up: students will write in there notebook the definition of ecosystem listed on the board.  
  Development:  Teacher will ask students for terms and meaning of terms of the major components of the ecosystem: Terms will be put on the whiteboard for further class development.  
  Practice:  Teacher will create an ecosystem on the board and display the path of energy from the sun through the ecosystem and out. The role of the food chain discussed at this point.  
  Accommodations:  Second language learners are given the class textbook with visuals and highlighted terms to aid in understanding vocabulary and concepts of the ecosystem.  
  Checking For Understanding:  Review in class and respond on question of vocabulary and understanding of how food webs are composed.  
  Closure:  review kinds of ecosystems: land and water. Remind the students to use cards for final exam review.  
  Evaluation:  Teacher will ask students to bring cards to the next session . Cards will collected and graded then handed back.  
  Teacher Reflections:    

 

LESSON PLAN 12

ENZYMES IN ACTION

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  Introduce students to the concept of enzyme and substrate reactions by using everyday foods.  
  Content:  Gelatin is made from a protein called collagen which comes from the joints of animals. Gelatin may be dissolved in hot water. As the dissolved gelatin mixture cools, the collagen forms into a matrix that traps the water; as a result, the mixture turns into the jiggling semi-solid mass that is so recognizable as Jell-O. Pineapple belongs to a group of plants called Bromeliads. Kiwi, papaya, and figs are other types of Bromeliads. The enzyme in pineapple juice that is responsible for the breakdown of collagen is bromelin. The process of canning pineapple denatures the bromelin, rendering it incapable of catalyzing the break down of gelatin.  
  Goals:  2.04 Investigate and describe the structure and function of enzymes and explain their importance in biological systems. 1.02 Design and conduct scientific investigations to answer biological questions.  
  Objectives:  Students will use pineapple juice as an enzyme and Jell-O as a substrate to illustrate an enzyme/substrate complex. Students will discover that the processing of food will denature enzymes.  
  Materials:  see lab  
  Introduction:  Review yesterday’s activity toothpickase with students-build on previous knowledge.  
  Development:  Go over the lab-give examples  
  Practice:  PINEAPPLE ENZYMES & JELLO MOLDS Lab-  
  Accommodations:    
  Checking For Understanding:  Approve lab set up  
  Closure:  Concept map of enzymes? If have time and or Quiz Remind students of homework  
  Evaluation:  Quiz  
  Teacher Reflections:    

 

LESSON PLAN 13

FACTORS THAT AFFECT PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Class: 9

Subject: Biology

 

Teacher Name:  
  Topic:  What are some of the key factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?  
  Content:  This lesson plan would be suitable for a high school biology class. Applicable standards: California Content Standards for Biology/Life Sciences, Cell Biology 1f and 1h, and Investigation and Experimentation 1a and 1d. Key vocabulary: photosynthesis rate, relationship, light intensity, CO2 concentration, water intake, temperature, humidity, stomate, saturation point, optimum level, limiting factor  
  Goals:  1. To know how the five factors, light intensity, CO2 Concentration, water intake, temperature, and humidity affect the rate of photosynthesis. 2. To use a computer-based simulation of photosynthesis to explore how these five factors affect photosynthesis rate. 3. To prepare graphs of data showing the effect of the five factors. 4. To answer key content questions relating to the data collected.  
  Objectives:  1. Working in groups, students will use a computer-based simulation of photosynthesis to explore how the five factors affect the rate of photosynthesis in order to determine the optimum conditions for photosynthesis. 2. Each student will graph data the group has collected for each of the factors. 3. Each student will questions showing how each of the factors affects photosynthesis rate and define saturation point, optimum level, and limiting factor.  
  Materials:  1.A classroom set of computers, one per table group of 4-5 students. 2.Computer program: Logal Explorer Biology: Photosynthesis. 3.Printed directions/questions/worksheet to go with the activity.  
  Introduction:  Using the comuter simulation program projected onto a large screen, the teacher will introduce the question of what happens to the rate of photosynthesis if various environmental factors are varied. Ideas from the class may be solicited and quickly “tested” with the simulation program in order to set the stage for the lesson.  
  Development:  1. Using direct instruction, the teacher can briefly introduce and discuss the five key factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis. 2. Using the photosynthesis simulation projected onto the screen, the teacher can demonstrate how to use the program to investigate the five factors, collect data and graph the results.  
  Practice:  1. Before starting the activity, students will briefly practice how to run the simulation program, with teacher guidance using the overhead projection on the screen. 2. After the students collect their first set of data, the teacher will review the basics of proper graphing using the overhead projector, and guide students in correctly graphing their data.  
  Accommodations:  1. Extended learning opportunities using the photosynthesis computer simulation program could easily be provided. Possible extensions might include investigating the effects of additional environmental factors such as the color of light to which the plants are exposed. 2. Students who need additional time to complete either the initial or the extension activity could come into class at lunch or after school to work on the computers, or conduct independent research at home.  
  Checking For Understanding:  1. While students are using the computers, the teacher will circulate from table to table checking for understanding and providing assistance as needed. 2. Specific content questions that analyze and interpret the results will be answered after the computer data has been collected and graphed.  
  Closure:  At the close of the lesson, the teacher will briefly query the class as the results they found on the effects of the five factors, using the on-screen projection of the simulation if necessary to reinforce the concepts.  
  Evaluation:  Students will be evaluated using the worksheet they prepare and turn in. The worksheet will contain data tables of the data they collected, properly labeled graphs of the data for each of the five factors, and answers to specific questions relating to the content of the activity.  
  Teacher Reflections:  Folllowing the activity and the grading of the worksheets, the teacher will reflect as to whether or not students met the stated objectives. Reteaching opportunities could be provided by reviewing the outcomes of the activity with the class, showing and going over the activity using the big screen projector and/or by repeating the direct instruction component of the activity.  

 

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