A Study To Find Out Learning Handles During Covid-19 Classes At Primary Level
A Study To Find Out Learning Handles During Covid-19 Classes At Primary Level

A Study To Find Out Learning Handles During Covid-19 Classes At Primary Level

  1. Topic
  2. Theme
  3. Sub Theme
  4. The overall background of the participants of the project
  5. Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.
  6. What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?
  7. What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?
  8. What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from the literature.
  9. What did you want to achieve in this research project?
  10. Who were the participants in your project?
  11. How did you try to solve the problem?
  12. What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?
  13. What were the findings and conclusion?
  14. Summary of the Project
  15. How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?
  16. What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?
  17. List the works you cited in your project.

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A Study To Find Out Learning Handles During Covid-19 Classes At the Primary Level


Managing children at home

Sub Theme

Finding Learning Handles

The overall background of the participants of the project


Name of the School (Govt Model Primary School Kot Hussain)

(Overall background of the participants of the project; area/school (socio-economic status, occupation/profession – earning trends of majority of the parents, literacy rate, academic quality, and any other special trait of the community where the school is situated)


GMPS KOT HUSSAIN was situated at main Eminabad Road. There were 6 teachers and 250 students enrolled in the school. The school building was looking very good. There were more than 5 classrooms and staff rooms. A playground, washroom, parking, clean drinking water electricity, and other basic facilities are available for the students.

This action research project titled A Study To Find Out Learning Handles During Covid-19 Classes At Primary Level” at GMPS KOT HUSSAIN.

Demographic details of participants: For the present research 30 participants were selected from the School students, their ages were between 12- 16 years. 2 teachers were selected as respondents. Among 30 students, there are 15 girls and 15 boys thus they make a total of 30 students and 2 teachers as a sample for the present research. So total sample size was 32 respondents.

The socio-economic condition of participants: The socio-economic status was not on the level of satisfaction. Students participating in this research belong to a category whose socio-economic conditions are not good. Such families don’t have enough means to manage the expenses of their children’s studies. The participants belong to middle-class families who don’t have rich sources for learning. Thus, they very much rely on school teachers and the curriculum.

Location of the school: The present research is conducted in a Government Model Primary school “GMPS Kot Hussain” which is situated in the district of Gujranwala.

The school has great discipline and is very organized in teaching the curriculum test boards. The school also shows a great 80-90% annual results every year. Hence it has a very good ratio of passing students every year.

Occupation / Profession and earning trends:

That was rural areas most people are attached to agriculture were 25% of the parents of the students attached to agriculture, 5% in the teaching profession .2 % people were working in offices and well-educated jobs, and the remaining were laborers.

Literacy Rate:

I notice that the literacy rate of the village was not so bad. The literacy rate was 35 percent but it was good other than around the villages. Parent meetings were arranged in school then I observed the literacy rate of the village. Almost 20% of parents were well-educated and other parents were illiterate.

Special Traits of Community:

The community where the school was situated had good hobbies like gardening, plantation, and playing cricket, and football. Students participate in games and then go to a high level. A private school was present in this village. People respect the teachers.

Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution.

The reason behind the selection of the topic: This action research was designed to find out learning handles during COVID-19 classes at the primary level. Although, the present topic has been selected for the research because this issue is faced by all parents during COVID-19. This study is to gain awareness about learning handles and students’ learning. This study will help the parents in improving their Classroom environment Strategies which ultimately leads to self-motivation among children regarding learning, children’s concentration, and increase the achievement level of the children as well.

The purpose of this study was to find out the learning handles for the learning of students. The objective of this study was to find out learning handles that help parents during the study of their children. Because in this era of technology and social media, almost every person is engaged in these activities which influenced their health and other activities.

The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning to take place”. But social distancing is very important nowadays during the covid-19 pandemic situation. “Therefore parents should also know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help children to motivate them to participate in indoor activities at home.”. Parents have to manage children at home on the basis of the following issues are:

Hand Shake: Students like friendship in school and street. Every student has a friend in school or in the street of his house.  They meet daily with one another for sharing their affairs of life and study issues. When they meet with one another they shake hands. Due to handshaking social distance finish. The chances of spreading coronavirus increase in this way.

The problem is sitting in school/class: In my classroom, it is my own experience that most students want to sit with one another on a bench. They don’t like social distancing. Teachers have to say again and again to maintaining social distancing (6 feet).

The problem in Home:

Some children quelled with another on the base of little things.  They made big issues on the base of little things so during this battle they do not focus on social distancing. Some other students were also involved in this battle. So these types of situations can increase the chances of coronavirus

Lack of motivation:

In some cases, your child’s behavior problem may actually be a motivation problem. This lack of motivation can lead to a number of issues in the classroom and at home regarding social distancing.

What was your discussion with your colleague/friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem?

When I discuss the whole matter of managing children at home through learning handles I encourage students to learn at home and maintain distance from others. Some students feel bored by listening to this matter again and again. So parents must know their children what they want. Then deal with them accordingly. Use examples freely that they can understand easily. Use a variety of children’s active teaching activities to gain the interest of the children. Set realistic performance goals and help children achieve them by encouraging them to set their own reasonable goals. Almost all the teachers and colleagues were in favor of the statement that the students have motivation are possessing good behavior regarding educational activities at home. Because motivation and behavior are very alternative. You can do anything just on the base of motivation. The researcher conducted this study which focused on managing children at home through learning handles that lead to a safe life for students. It is better to motivate the students rather than punish them. A student can perform any activity or task just on the base of motivation. So parents can do this practice at home.

A parent’s most important duty is to be aware of his children about covid-19 and social distancing because children give more importance to the words of parents. Motivation ultimately enhances good behavior regarding social distancing. Work with parents to motivate students at home through learning handles like games & apps, TELE taleem ghr program, and many others. Exactly what work their child should be doing at home? Workspace or resource requirements for their child’s home learning. Due dates for assignments so that they can provide reminders where necessary. Lots of praise is effective, says Amy. ‘Not just directly – I have also been putting through commendations for my students.’ If your school and home have an awards system, keep using it – and even make it more short-term. Rather than termly commendations, consider weekly awards for positive contributions to class discussions, responding to feedback, etc., making sure to reward and praise things such as students’ effort or completion of a task rather than their attainment.

A bit of healthy competition can be great for boosting motivation, as well as teaching students the importance of learning from failures and losses. You could run small competitions in-home or larger projects with a small prize, even if it’s a virtual gold star. Or rather than competing individually, split each class into teams (or houses if you have them) and give them points for completing tasks, contributing to discussions, being positive, etc. – which might also help boost a sense of social distancing. Parents should keep individual activities in the home to maintain social distancing. Make sure you regularly engage with students individually. ‘Engaging with students by name really helps,’ says Amy. ‘During an online lesson.

What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles/websites)?

Digital transformation, which is widely used in the 21st-century literature associated with Industry 4.0, has been accelerated by the mandatory lockdown of a great number of organizations due to COVID-19, and many educational institutions have started using different distance education systems and tools. This shows the fact that digital technology use in education has radically gained more importance at all levels of education. Accordingly, the flexible use of these digital learning management systems has recently turned into a necessity in transforming educational organizations, educators, and students’ habits. To adapt to this transformational change, while some countries have been trying to implement an urgent change vision at the national level, many others have adopted some solutions to sustain their education systems at the institutional or individual levels. Although the outcomes of any implementations are unpredictable yet; still, it can be estimated that the schools or institutions which already have experienced teaching staff in distance learning management systems and the ones which invested in the innovation of their own digital technology resources will come out better off this situation, and it is no wonder that the roles of educational institutions and educators will continue to change in the post-COVID world of education.

There is still no consensus in the literature about when distance education as a term came into existence; however, we can barely state that the first generation of distance education dates back to the 1850s (Agostinelli, 2019; Holmberg, 1987; Jung, 2019). While many studies in the recent literature regard distance education as an online way of instruction via digital technology; decades ago, distance education was also used to describe a form of education that is carried out via radio, letter, mail, or TV (Simonson, Zvacek & Smaldino, 2019; Sumner, 2010; Zhao, et al., 2005). This shows that thanks to the enhancements in digital technology throughout the years, both the definition and practices of distance education have changed, and distance education has turned into a form of online learning (Siemens, Gašević & Dawson, 2015). Agostinelli (2019) names this new form the third generation of distance education.

On the other hand, the widespread use of digital technology in different educational contexts has brought some new terms into the literature such as online learning, web-based learning, blended learning, e-learning, learning management systems (LMS), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), massive open online courses (MOOCs), virtual learning environments (VLE), etc. (Daniel, 2014; Moore & Kearsley, 2004; Urdan & Weggen, 2000); therefore, it can be stated that distance education has become an umbrella term that stands for a form of 294 Korkmaz & Toraman education conducted online through virtual learning environments. However, in this study, we prefer to use the term “online learning” instead of “distance learning” to describe the form of teaching and learning through some platforms or learning management systems on which both educators and students get together online synchronously. When the above-mentioned issues are considered, online learning, with its unique features, is obviously different in terms of its educational philosophy, theory, and instructional methodology. Rooted in the paradigms of reconstructionism and humanism (Korkmaz, 2019), online learning is mainly based on connectivism (Barnett, McPherson & Sanderson, 2013; Goldie, 2016; Jung, 2019) and it strives to remove barriers in order to ensure equal opportunities for lifelong learners (Gaskell, 2015). Developed by Siemens and Downes, connectivism is described as a learning theory for the digital age with the impact of the concepts such as globalization, technology, lifelong learning, and digital information. Siemens (2004) states that connectivism is the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, complexity, and self-organization theories. Siemens (2004).

Considering these principles, Duke, Harper, and Johnston (2013) note that connectivism is characterized as a reflection of our society which is changing rapidly, which society is more complex, connected globally, and mediated by increasing advancements in technology. Therefore, self-directed and connectivist learners on networks should create their learning environments according to their own learning needs (Downes, 2008; Levy, 2011; Tschofen & Mackness, 2012). Advocators of connectivism argue that knowledge cannot be transferred from educators to learners, participation in learning is important, and knowledge can be formed as a result of active interaction among individuals (Bozkurt, 2014; De Waard et al., 2011; Goldie, 2016; Steffens, 2015).

Although we do not have enough information about the outcomes of online learning practices and their pros and cons during this worldwide pandemic yet, we may still estimate that not all the practices being conducted now may reflect the suggested principles of connectivism described above. However, the most critical point to consider here is that, no matter what online platforms or systems have been used, we should be careful about not to cause a bigger problem while trying to solve an educational problem. In other words, while trying to ensure the academic development of the student, we should not overlook the psychological and social or socio-emotional aspects of learning which require a more holistic perspective. We should also keep in mind that, as all humans are biological, psychological, and social beings (Aslan & Güngör, 2019; Gove, 1994) and learning requires more than those factors, online learning alone may not meet all the learning needs of students.

In addition to the educational philosophy and learning theory that online learning is based on, we should also know that online learning environments have some certain characteristics in terms of their instructional design (Larmuseau, Desmet & Depaepe, 2019; Mayer, 2019; Weidlich & Bastiaens, 2019). For example, Branch and Stefaniak (2019) state that the principles of online learning are collaboration, connectivity, student-centeredness, virtual reality, community, exploration, shared knowledge, multisensory experiences, and authenticity.

Similarly, Su (2016) notes essential characteristics of an ideal online learning environment include high levels of social presence, cognitive presence, teaching presence, well-established online learning communities, and self-directed online learners. These characteristics reflect the best or ideal practice of online learning and mostly reflect the social aspects of learning; however, how many educators or policymakers have been aware of those themes during these rapid actions taken, or how many of these have been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic? Another important issue is that, while educators, for many years, have been trying to make learning more social (Bandura, 2002; Boyd, Richerson & Henrich, 2011; Heyes, 2012), collaborative and cooperative (Jacobs, 2015; Lin, 2020; Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017, p. 209), today we have come to the result of digitalized and individualized learning.

In other words, students have suddenly had to force themselves to take responsibility for their own learning although they get together with the educators trying to reach them through online platforms. As this way of learning may not be suitable for every student or not every digital platform may be reached by International Journal of Technology in Education and Science (IJTES) 295 everyone throughout the world, it is quite reasonable to reckon that this process during COVID-19 may expose more challenges and we may have to tackle with more diverse and complex problems in the future.

Considering all the issues mentioned above, not only investigating about what educators have experienced in online learning practices during COVID-19 but also finding out their opinions about what educational changes they expect and the actions/precautions to be taken for the new era of education is of great importance for post-COVID education. We must search for logical answers and effective solutions during our current online education practices as we may not have enough time to focus on those after the pandemic ends. We believe that finding answers to these questions will help educational institutions, educators and other stakeholders act for a better learning experience for learners and serve for a better knowledge society in a fairer and more equal world.

What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from the literature.

Variables of the study:

Two variables were included in this research. One is the independent variable and one is the dependent variable. Learning handles (games/Apps, Tele taleem ghr program, etc.) is the independent variable and students’ learning is the dependent variable. Now a day learning handles included so many things some of which are discussed below.

Taleem Ghar:

The Punjab government’s PMIU and PITB have teamed up to launch “Taleem Ghar” – an initiative to enable remote learning of students between grades 1-8. Recently recorded data for the official education system responses to COVID-19 around the world. When seen in light of the World Bank’s classification method for countries’ income levels, the data helps analyze the effects of the pandemic on student learning and the gaps that may arise in student performance levels. Countries with low-income levels stand to lose a lot, as governments are ill-equipped to provide remote learning opportunities. It is also important to note that it would lead to a gap between the education skill level of high-income countries and low-income countries, in effect widening the gap between poor and rich countries in the near future.

Educational games apps:

Social Networking Sites:

These sites are significant examples of the latest progress in the field of technology. Social networking sites include Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Skype, WhatsApp Messenger, Google talk, Google Messenger, etc. These sites are used for a lot of purposes by people from different walks of life but the primitive aim is to interact with friends, make relationships and learn communication from the experiences of other people.


A multimedia projector is a compact, high-resolution, full-color projector capable of projecting text, images, video, and audio content. Typically, the projector will feature inputs for a computer, DVD player, VCR, CD player, and storage device. Multimedia projectors can be connected to computers, VCRs, DVD players, and cable boxes. The images transmitted from the device are then transmitted into a special digitized light that is reflected on thousands of mirrors within the projector, which shines the image onto a screen.

Students learning:

Student Learning Outcomes are statements that specify what students will know, be able to do, or be able to demonstrate when they have completed or participated in a Course or Program. SLOs specify an action by the student that must be observable, measurable, and able to be demonstrated. Research has demonstrated that engaging students in the learning process increase their attention and focus, motivates them to practice higher-level critical thinking skills, and promotes meaningful learning experiences.

What did you want to achieve in this research project?

Research Objectives

“The aim of this study is to analyze that “A study to find out Learning Handles during Covid-19 at Primary Level.” In order to achieve said aims, the following objectives are designed:

  • “To analyze the relationship between learning handles and students’ learning skills”.
  • “To check the effect of Educational Games and Apps, Tele taleem ghr on students learning during COVID-19.

Research Questions

RQ1.What is the relationship between learning handles and students’ learning skills?

RQ2. What is the effect of Tele Taleem Ghr on students learning during COVID-19?

Who were the participants in your project?


The population of the study comprised girls studying at GMPS Kot Hussain, who lack learning due to a lack of awareness about learning handles.


 A total of “30” students and 2 teachers were taken as a sample of the study.  Eminabad City was taken as a Convenient sample by applying the Matched Pair Random Sampling Technique. So, the total sample size was 32 respondents including teachers and students. Students were selected from the 5th class. This sample provides appropriate knowledge regarding all the students of the school they studying in the school GMPS Kot Hussain.

How did you try to solve the problem?

Research Methodology

All research methods and techniques that will be used in this study are given below.

Research Method:

Research methods may describe in three forms: Quantitative Method, Qualitative method, and Mixed Method. In the study, the quantitative research method was used, because data were collected by using a questionnaire in the light of students’ and teachers’ perceptions.

Research Design:

It is descriptive and surveys research about “A study to find out learning handles during covid-19 at primary level.


A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of the public schools of Pakistan. The data was collected from students’ public schools by filling up the questionnaire.

Sampling Technique

A convenient sampling technique was used in this study.


In research, a sample is a gathering of individuals, that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 30 students and 2 teachers were selected from government schools.

 Data collection procedure

Data was collected through questionnaires. One questionnaire was filled out by one student according to his point of view. 2 questionnaires were filled out by two teachers according to their point of view. In this way, 32 questionnaires were filled out by 32 respondents. On the base of this data know the opinion of students, find out the problems of students, and provided solutions to sort out these problems. Open-ended and closed-ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed-ended questionnaires, 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2), and strongly Disagree (DA=1).

Data Analysis

Data collection measure means the tool through which the data can be collected”. There are different sources of data collection like scales, proxies, and questions. In this study the researcher used appropriate research tools and software to analyze data, like; SPSS 18 software analysis in which descriptive analysis was used to find out the frequency, percentage, means, and minimum/maximum values, etc.

What kind of instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed?


The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. The questionnaire is the form in which different questions are asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study. The questionnaire was developed in this way;

Questionnaire for students:

The following 10 questions were prepared for the questionnaire.

  1. Parents educate their children by finding learning handles during covid 19 at the Primary level.
  2. Using educational Games and Apps improves students’ learning skills at any level.
  3. Tele Taleem Ghar program allows students to take greater control of their learning.
  4. Students can communicate with international peers on education-related matters by using Educational Games and Apps.
  5. Providing Internet access to any level of students would be beneficial for learning in schools as well as in homes also.
  6. The multimedia projector can help students communication like presentations in class.
  7. YouTube videos improve the learning of students.
  8. Presentations through MS PowerPoint and digital media improve students’ confidence and communication.
  9. Use of Technology for personal productivity.
  10. Students follow this “Stay home stay save”.

Data analysis

After the collection of the data, it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data, the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.

What were the findings and conclusion?


1. Overall majority of 96 % of the respondents agreed that Parents educate their children by finding learning handles during covid 19 at the Primary level.

2. Overall majority 98 % of the respondents agreed that Using Educational Games and Apps improves students’ learning skills at any level.

3. Overall majority of 92 % of the respondents agreed that the Tele Taleem Ghar program allows students to take greater control of their learning.

4. Overall majority of 96 % of the respondents agreed that Students can communicate with international peers on education-related matters by using Educational Games and Apps.

5. Overall majority 94 % of the respondents agreed that Providing Internet access to any level of students would be beneficial for learning in schools as well as in homes also.

6. Overall majority of 93 % of the respondents agreed that a Multimedia projector can help students in communication like presentations in class.

7. Overall majority of 96 % of the respondents agreed that YouTube videos improve the learning of students.

8. Overall majority 99 % of the respondents agreed that Presentations through MS PowerPoint and digital media improve students’ confidence and communication.

9. Overall majority of 92 % of the respondents agreed the Use of Technology is for personal productivity.

10. Overall majority 98 % of the respondents agreed that Students follow this “Stay home stay save”.


The conclusions drawn from the study are as follows:

 The results obtained by the study reveal a study to find out learning handles during covid 19 at the primary level. The researcher in this study, from the findings, concluded by the analysis of data that Student’s ratio of using the internet for learning is higher than using printed material/textbooks, for problem-solving skills, communication skills, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence and honesty in primary school students.

According to the perceptions of Primary school students (in open-ended questions), the majority of the respondents agreed that the Tele Taleem Ghar program has a stronger effect on learning.

Major suggestions as perceived by Primary school students to improve the learning skills of students. Compulsory computer education, encouraging the student’s participation in ICT, developing hobbies in students, arranging computer games and developing computer labs, etc.

Summary of the Project

University recommended me some developing basic skills in which theme and sub-theme. The topic that I choose is “A STUDY TO FIND OUT LEARNING HANDLES DURING COVID-19 AT PRIMARY LEVEL”.

I choose this topic because I have to face problems about this with COVID-19. Students waste much of their time on bad activities. it was difficult to create a concentrated environment in the home during COVID-19. Teli taleem ghr and other educational Apps played an important role in the learning of students and managing children at home.

The sample comprised a total of 30 students and 2 teachers drawn from the Primary school of district Gujranwala. They were selected by a simple random sampling technique.

Questionnaire instrument used for teachers and students for data collection. The research design was descriptive. The result was finding that technology has a good impact on students’ learning skills. Effective Educational Games and APPS at home are helpful for maintaining the concentration and motivation of students. In this way, students learn language easily with full concentration also.

How do you feel about this practice? What have you learned?

The aim of this study is to find out learning handles.  My research in rural areas basic skills. My project participants were the students and teachers of govt Model Primary School Kot Hussain situated in Eminabad.

Learning handles was very important in the study because it helps build learning skills in students. Like educational games and apps, Tele taleem ghr programs, and many others. Appreciation and praise offerings are very helpful for building confidence in students.

So I used a different technique for creating a Hygienic atmosphere in the home. Students were happy and learn quickly on the base of a hygienic atmosphere at home. I feel pleasure. I think in our rural areas parents create a hygienic atmosphere at home and used technology then students have no problem of learning and focusing on education. Students respond to the implementation of teaching if they teach in a hygienic atmosphere. I created a hygienic atmosphere in the home through different activities. I learn how to improve the student’s motivation level and learning by using educational Games and APPS. Finally, I feel satisfied.

What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher?

It added some new things to my knowledge key points are given below.

  • It made me a good organizer.
  • It made me ready for everything that is throw their way.
  • It enabled me that we can perform every task for students just on the base of technology.
  • It enabled me how to create a Hygienic atmosphere in the classroom for building self-motivation and learning in students.
  • Appreciation is helpful for building learning skills in students.
  • It built self-confidence in me that how to deal with rural areas students.
  • Before these activities, I was not a good organizer. it made me innovative.
  • I started finding out new things I did have not to insert. But when I started my project a great change brought in my thinking.
  • I am capable to find out new things for learning in students.
  • It made me a good effective teacher and mentor.
  • It made me a good role model.
  • It made me confident. Teachers‘ self-motivation can help influence others to be better people.
  • It made me capable to understand how to use technology in the classroom according to the student’s psyches to maintain self-confidence and motivation at the Primary level.
  • It tells me how an unhygienic atmosphere effect students’ self-motivation levels and focus.

List the works you cited in your project.

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 Branch, R. M. R., & Stefaniak, J. E. (2019). Instructional Design Theory. In Open and Distance Education Theory Revisited (pp. 85-94). Retrieved from Springer, Singapore. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-7740-2_10

Christensen, L. B., Johnson, R. B. & Turner, L. A. (2014). Research methods, design, and analysis. The USA: Pearson Education.

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 Cunningham, P., & Anzola, G. (2019). Editorial Note. The shifting mind set of the higher education internationalization landscape. ObIES, 3. Retrieved from https://revistas.udistrital.edu.co/index.php/obies/article/view/16163/15552

 Daniel, J. (2014). Foreword to the special section on massive open online courses MOOCs: Evolution or revolution? Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(1), i–iv. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol10no1/daniel_foreword_0314.pdf.

De Waard, I., Abajian, S., Gallagher, M. S., Hogue, R., Keskin, N., Koutropoulos, A., & Rodríguez, O. C. (2011). Using mLearning and MOOCs to understand chaos, emergence, and complexity in education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 12(7), 94-115.

Downes, S. (2008). Places to go: Connectivism & connective knowledge. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 5(1), 6. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1037&context=innovate/

 Duke, B., Harper, G., & Johnston, M. (2013). Connectivism as a digital age learning theory. The International HETL Review, 2013(Special Issue), 4-13. Retrieved from https://www.hetl.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/09/HETLReview2013SpecialIssue.pdf page=10

 Ekmekçi, E. (2017). The flipped writing classroom in Turkish EFL context: A comparative study on a new model. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 151-167.

 Erkuş, A. (2013). Davranış bilimleri için bilimsel araştırma süreci. Ankara: Seçkin.

 Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage. Rowman & Littlefield.

 Gaskell, A. (2015). Open distance learning. In M. Peters (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of educational philosophy and theory (pp. 1–6). Singapore: Springer Singapore. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287- 532-7_215-1.

Goldie, J. G. S. (2016). Connectivism: A knowledge learning theory for the digital age?. Medical teacher, 38(10), 1064-1069.

Gove, W. R. (1994). Why we do what we do: A biopsychosocial theory of human motivation. Social Forces, 73(2), 363-394.

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